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Feb 23, 2017

EBOOK - Industrial Fire Protection Engineering (Robert G. Zalosh)


EBOOK - Kỹ thuật phòng cháy chữa cháy công nghiệp - Tác giả: Robert G. Zalosh (391 Trang).

This work was made possible in part by a grant from the Society of Fire Protection Engineers Educational and Scientific Foundation.
The material in this text was compiled and presented while the author was teaching a course in Industrial Fire Protection at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) center for Firesafety Studies. The course is intended for graduate students who have an undergraduate education in engineering or the physical sciences, and who have already studied combustion chemistry, fire dynamics, and the basics of automatic fire suppression systems. However, a keen interest in industrial fire protection and an inquisitive, analytical psyche are perfectly acceptable substitute prerequisites for readers of this text.
Neither this nor any other textbook can replace consensus codes and standards for the majority of industrial fire protection applications. On the other hand, codes and standards often do not suffice for the probing practitioner or pathfinder in industrial fire protection. Many of the author’s students and his current and former colleagues at WPI and at Factory Mutual Research Corporation fall into this category. Their work and encouragement have made this text possible.
Publisher’s Note:Whilst all efforts have been made to identify and contact holders of copyrighted material it is possible one or two items may not be acknowledged. If anyone is aware of an item in this book so affected the publisher would welcome their comments.

1 Introduction and perspective 1
1.1 Engineering approach to industrial fire protection 1
1.1.1 Fire/explosion scenario identification 2
1.1.2 Consequence analysis 6
1.1.3 Alternative protection evaluation 8
1.2 Statistical overview of industrial fires and explosions 10
1.2.1 Industrial occupancies in large loss fires 10
1.2.2 Types of fires/explosions in the largest losses 14
1.2.3 Facilities involved in multiple fatality fires and explosions 14
1.2.4 Ignition sources 17
1.2.5 Need for automatic detection and suppression 18
1.3 Historic industrial fires and explosions 20
1.3.1 Fire protection lessons learned 21
1.3.2 Lessons not learned 23
2 Plant siting and layout 27
2.1 Fire protection siting considerations 27
2.1.1 Safe separation distances 27
2.1.2 Water supplies 36
2.1.3 Local firefighting organizations 41
2.1.4 Local codes and attitudes 42
2.1.5 Local environmental effects 42
2.2 Plant layout for fire/explosion protection 43
2.2.1 General principles and procedures 43
2.2.2 Hazard segregation and isolation 43
2.2.3 Ignition source isolation 46
2.2.4 Passive barriers 51
2.2.5 Sprinkler system layout 51
2.2.6 Accessibility for manual firefighting 52
2.2.7 Emergency exits 52
2.2.8 Computer aided plant layout 54
3 Fire resistant construction 57
3.1 Construction materials 57
3.1.1 Steel 57
3.1.2 Steel insulation 61
3.1.3 Concrete 61
3.2 Fire resistance calculations 61
3.3 Fire resistance tests 67
3.3.1 Furnace exposure tests 67
3.3.2 Empirical correlations 69
3.3.3 High intensity fire resistance tests 72
3.4 Fire walls 73
3.4.1 General criteria for fire walls 73
3.4.2 Fire wall design 73
3.4.3 Fire wall loss experience 78
3.5 Fire doors 78
3.5.1 Types of fire doors 78
3.5.2 Fusible links and detectors 81
3.5.3 Reliability issues 81
3.6 Insulated metal deck roofing 83
3.6.1 Description 83
3.6.2 White house tests 84
3.6.3 Small-scale tests and classifications 85
3.7 Water spray protection of exposed structures 86

4 Smoke isolation and venting 91
4.1 Isolation and halon suppression within ventilated equipment 91
4.2 Isolation within rooms–building smoke control 96
4.2.1 Buoyancy pressure differences 96
4.2.2 Volumetric expansion pressures 99
4.2.3 Isolation via ventilation exhaust 100
4.2.4 Upstream smoke propagation 104
4.2.5 Door and damper smoke leakage 107
4.3 Heat and smoke roof venting 107
4.4 Heat and smoke venting in sprinklered buildings 112
4.4.1 Testing 112
4.4.2 Loss experience 113
4.4.3 Mathematical modeling 113
4.4.4 Closing remarks 114
5 Warehouse storage 117
5.1 Warehouse fire losses 117
5.2 Storage configurations 118
5.3 Effect of storage height, flue space, and aisle width 124
5.4 Commodity effects 128
5.4.1 Generic commodity classification 128
5.4.2 Laboratory flammability testing 132
5.4.3 Small array tests 135
5.4.4 Large array sprinklered fire tests 145
5.5 Sprinkler flow rate requirements 148
5.5.1 Ceiling spray sprinklers 149
5.5.2 In-rack sprinklers 157
5.5.3 Early suppression fast response (ESFR) sprinklers 158
5.6 Sprinklered warehouse fire modeling 159
5.6.1 Conceptual model overview 159
5.6.2 Free burn heat release rates and flame spread rates 159
5.6.3 Warehouse fire plumes and ceiling jets 159
5.6.4 Sprinkler actuation model 162
5.6.5 Spray-plume penetration model 163
5.6.6 Reduction in heat release due to actual delivered density 164
5.6.7 Fire control criteria: can wetted commodity be ignited? 165
5.6.8 Fire suppression criteria 166
5.7 Cold storage warehouse fire protection 167
6 Storage of special commodities and bulk materials 171
6.1 Roll paper 171
6.1.1 Commodity description 171
6.1.2 Loss experience 173
6.1.3 Roll paper fire tests 173
6.1.4 Roll paper protection requirements 177
6.2 Nonwoven roll goods 178
6.2.1 Commodity description 178
6.2.2 Loss experience 179
6.2.3 Fire tests 179
6.2.4 Sprinkler protection requirements for nonwovens 181
6.3 Rubber tire storage 181
6.4 Aerosol products 184
6.4.1 Product description 184
6.4.2 Aerosol warehouse fires 185
6.4.3 Aerosol product formulation effects 186
6.4.4 Sprinkler protection guidelines 188
6.5 Solid oxidizers 188
6.6 Bulk storage 191
6.6.1 General description 191
6.6.2 Spontaneous ignition testing 192
6.6.3 Spontaneous ignition theory 192
6.6.4 Detection and suppression of bulk storage fires 196
7 Flammable liquid ignitability and extinguishability 201
7.1 Incident data 201
7.2 Ignitability temperatures 202
7.2.1 Flash points and fire points 202
7.2.2 Autoignition temperatures 205
7.2.3 Time to reach fire point 205
7.3 Electrostatic ignitability 209
7.4 Pool and spill fire heat release rates 215
7.4.1 Confined pool fires 215
7.4.2 Unconfined spill fires 217
7.5 Spray fires 219
7.6 Water spray extinguishment 222
7.6.1 High flash point liquids 224
7.6.2 Water miscible liquids 226
7.6.3 Low flashpoint liquids 227
7.6.4 Spray fires 228
7.7 Foam extinguishment 230
7.7.1 Low Expansion Foam 230
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