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CHIA SẺ KIẾN THỨC KỸ THUẬT

Feb 14, 2017

EBOOK - Phase Diagrams - Understanding the Basics (F. C. Campbell)


Phase diagrams are graphical maps that show the behavior of metal alloys during heating and cooling. In addition, they show the solid phases that are present after an alloy freezes. They are a primary tool in metallurgy because they provide the basis for predicting or interpreting the changes in the internal structure of a material. When an alloy undergoes heating and cooling, it undergoes phase transitions or transformations, in both the liquid and  solid state. Therefore, an appreciable amount of this book is devoted to understanding these transformations.
In keeping with ASMs goal in the Understanding the Basics series of technical books, many of the mathematical formulations that underlie the theory of phase diagrams have been omitted. There are many excellent texts on chemical thermodynamic that provide this theory. The material in this book can be comprehended by anyone with some degree of a technical background. For those lacking knowledge of basic metallurgical principles, I have included two appendices that are helpful.
Appendix A covers the basics of metallic  structure, while Appendix B is an introduction to the
principles of solidification. This book is helpful to engineers, technicians, production personnel and  students with no previous exposure to metal- lurgy. It is also helpful to metallurgical engineers who have forgotten many of the principles of phase diagrams and need a refresher.
Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to phase diagrams. The next two chap- ters offer basic information that is helpful in reading subsequent chapters. Chapter 2 is an introduction to solid solutions and phase transformations. While I have attempted to avoid the detailed development of the thermo- dynamic formulation behind phase diagrams, Chapter 3 gives a somewhat cursory overview of the importance of Gibbs free energy and how it is used to construct and interpret phase diagrams.
The two types of alloy phase diagrams that receive the most emphasis are binary (two metals) and ternary (three metals). While a few quaternary (four metals) diagrams can be found in the literature, computer modeling based  on hermodynamic  principles  (described in Chapter 13) are now almost exclusively used to analyze this degree of complexity.

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