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Jun 4, 2017

EBOOK - Handbook of Natural Colorants (Thomas Bechtold & Rita Mussak)


EBOOK - Sổ tay về chất màu tự nhiên - Tác giả: Thomas Bechtold & Rita Mussak (432 Trang).

Renewable resources, their use and modification are involved in a multitude of important processes with a major influence on our everyday lives. Applications can be found in the energy sector, chemistry, pharmacy, the textile industry, paints and coatings, to name but a few.
The area interconnects several scientific disciplines (agriculture, biochemistry, chemistry, technology, environmental sciences, forestry, ...), which makes it very difficult to have an expert view on the complicated interaction. Therefore, the idea to create a series of scientific books, focusing on specific topics concerning renewable resources, has been very opportune and can help to clarify some of the underlying connections in this area.

In a very fast changing world, trends are not only characteristic for fashion and political standpoints but science is also not free from hypes and buzzwords. The use of renewable resources is again more important nowadays; however, it is not part of a hype or a fashion.
As the lively discussions among scientists continue about how many years we will still be able to use fossil fuels, opinions ranging from 50 years to 500 years, they do agree that the reserve is limited and that it is essential not only to search for new energy carriers but also for new material sources.
In this respect, renewable resources are a crucial area in the search for alternatives for fossil-based raw materials and energy. In the field of the energy supply, biomass and renewable-based resources will be part of the solution alongside other alternatives such as solar energy, wind energy, hydraulic power, hydrogen technology and nuclear energy. In the field of material sciences, the impact of renewable resources will probably be even bigger. Integral utilization of crops and the use of waste streams in certain industries will grow in importance, leading to a more sustainable way of producing materials.

Part I Historical Aspects 1
1 History of Natural Dyes in the Ancient Mediterranean World 3
Maria J. Melo
1.1 Introduction 3
1.1.1 Ancient Mediterranean World 3
1.1.2 Dyes from Antiquity 4
1.1.3 Unveiling the Secrets of Ancient Dyes with Modern Science 5
1.2 Ancient Reds 6
1.2.1 Anthraquinone Reds 6
1.2.2 Redwoods 8
1.2.3 Flavylium/Anthocyanin Reds 8
1.3 Ancient Blues 10
1.3.1 Indigo Blues 10
1.3.2 Anthocyanin Blues 12
1.4 Ancient Purple (Tyrian Purple) 13
1.5 Ancient Yellows 15
1.5.1 Flavonoid Yellows 15
1.5.2 Carotenoid Yellows 17
1.5.3 Chalcone and Aurone Yellows 17
Acknowledgement 17
References 17
2 Colours in Civilizations of the World and Natural Colorants:
History under Tension 21
Dominique Cardon
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 The Triumph of Mauvein: Synthetic Fulfilment of the Antique Purplemania 22
2.3 Blue: from Kingly Regional to Globally Democratic 23
2.4 Red and Yellow: from Micro to Macro Scales 24
2.5 What Future for Natural Colorants in the Dawning Era of Renewable Resources?
3 History of Natural Dyes in North Africa ‘Egypt’ 27
Harby Ezzeldeen Ahmed
3.1 Introduction 27
3.2 Natural Dyes in Pharaonic Textiles 28
3.3 Dyeing Techniques 28
3.4 Dye Sources 29
3.4.1 Woad 29
3.4.2 Indigo 30
3.4.3 Red 30
3.4.4 Yellow 30
3.4.5 Black 31
3.4.6 Brown 31
3.4.7 Green 31
3.4.8 Purple 31
3.5 Dyeing in Coptic Textiles 31
3.6 Wool Dyed Fabric with Natural Dye 33
3.7 Dyes in Islamic Textiles 33
3.8 Mordants 34
References 36
Part II Regional Aspects of Availability of Plant Sources 37
4 Dye Plants in Europe 39
Andrea Biertu¨mpfel and Gu¨nter Wurl
4.1 Introduction 39
4.2 Potential European Dye Plants 39
4.3 Cultivation of Dye Plants Yesterday and Now 40
4.4 Modern Cultivation Methods for Important European Dye Plants 41
4.4.1 General Facts 41
4.4.2 Blue Dyeing Plants 42
4.4.3 Red Dyeing Plants 43
4.4.4 Yellow Dyeing Plants 44
4.4.5 Brown Dyeing Plants 46
4.5 Production of Dye Extracts 48
4.6 Relevant Examples for the Application 50
4.7 Conclusions, Discussion and Summary 50
5 Dyes in South America 53
Veridiana Vera de Rosso and Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante
5.1 Introduction 53
5.2 Annatto 55
5.3 Turmeric 57
5.4 Marigold 59
5.5 Cochineal and Carmine 60
Acknowledgements 62
References 62
6 Natural Dyes in Eastern Asia (Vietnam and Neighbouring Countries) 65
Hoang Thi Linh
6.1 Introduction 65
6.2 Annatto (Botanical NameBixa orellanaL., Family Bixaceae) 65
6.3 Tea (Botanical NameCamellia sinensis(L.) Kuntze, Family Theaceae) 67
6.4 Umbrella Tree (Botanical NameTerminalia catappaL., Family Combretaceae) 67
6.5 Diospyros mollis– Mackloeur (Botanical NameDiospyros mollisL. Griff, Family Ebenaceae) 68
6.6 Indigo (Botanical NameIndigoferaL., Family Fabaceae) 68
6.6.1 Indigofera tinctoriaL. 68
6.6.2 Indigofera galegoidesDC. 69
6.6.3 Strobilanthes cusia(Baphicacanthus)69 6.7 Henna (kok khan, or khao youak in Laos) (Botanical NameLawsonia spinosaL., Family Lythraceae) 69
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