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Dec 5, 2017

EBOOK - Materials Handbook (George Stuart Brady & Henry R. Clauser & John A. Vaccari)


Materials used for the outward dissipation of extremely high heats by mass removal. Their most common use is as an external heat shield to protect supersonic aerospace vehicles from an excessive buildup of heat caused by air friction at the surface. The ablative material must have a low thermal conductivity in order that the heat may remain concentrated in the thin surface layer. As the surface of the ablator melts or sublimes, it is wiped away by the frictional forces that simultaneously heat newly exposed surfaces. The heat is carried off with the material removed. The less material that
is lost, the more efficient is the ablative material.

The ablative material also should have a high thermal capacity in the solid, liquid, and gaseous states; a high heat of fusion and evaporation; and a high heat of dissociation of its vapors. The ablative agent, or ablator,is usually a carbonaceous organic compound, such as a phenolic plastic. As the
dissociation products are lost as liquid or vapor, the char is held in place by the refractory reinforcing fibers, still giving a measure of heat resistance. The effective life of an ablative is short, calculated in seconds per millimeter of thickness for the distance traveled in the atmosphere.

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