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Jan 8, 2018

EBOOK - Clean Electricity From Photovoltaics 2nd edition (Mary D Archer & Martin A Green)


EBOOK - Sản xuất nguồn điện sạch từ năng lượng mặt trời  (Mary D Archer & Martin A Green) - 706 Trang.

The world of photovoltaics has advanced at a phenomenal pace since the first edition of this book was published in 2001. Then we were able to report with modest pride that 200 MWp of PV had been installed worldwide during 1999, taking global cumulative installed capacity to just over 1 GWp. By the end of 2012, global installed capacity had edged past the iconic figure of 100 GWp. The final figure for global installations in 2013 is yet to be determined, but it will add around another 35 GWp, with plausible estimates for cumulative installed capacity by 2020 topping 300 GWp. PV is now, after hydro and wind, the third most important renewable energy source in terms of installed global capacity.


1. The Past and Present 1
M. D. Archer
1.1 Introduction............................ 1
1.2 Milestones in the development of photovoltaic technology . . . 6
1.3 The crystalline silicon solar cell . . . . ............. 8
1.4 GaAs and III–V multijunction cells . . ............. 10
1.5 Concentrator photovoltaics.................... 12
1.6 Inorganicthin-filmcells ..................... 13
1.7 Organic and hybrid technologies . . . . ............. 16
1.8 Overview of photovoltaic cell operation ............. 19
1.9 Otherjunctiontypes ....................... 29
1.10 Structure of this book . . . .................... 33
References................................ 33
2. Limits to Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Efficiency 41
M. A. Green
2.1 Introduction............................ 41
2.2 Photovoltaicconverters:essentialrequirements ......... 44
2.3 Thermodynamic properties of sunlight . ............. 46
2.4 ‘Top-down’ thermodynamic efficiency limits . ......... 49
2.5 Single-cellefficiencylimits.................... 52
2.6 Multiple-junction devices . .................... 66
2.7 Otherhigh-efficiencyoptions................... 70
2.8 Summary ............................. 80
Acknowledgement............................ 82
References................................ 82
3. Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells 87
M. A. Green
3.1 Overview ............................. 87
3.2 Silicon cell development . .................... 89
3.3 Substrate production . . . ....................105
3.4 Cellprocessing ..........................113
3.5 Cellcosts .............................122
3.6 Opportunities for improvement . . . . . .............124
3.7 Silicon-supported thin films . . . . . . .............127
3.8 Summary .............................130
Acknowledgement............................131
References................................131
4. Thin-Film Solar Cells based on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon 139
C. Ballif, M. Despeisse and F.-J. Haug
4.1 Introduction............................139
4.2 Basic properties of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon alloys . . . ........................146
4.3 Thin-film silicon solar cells....................156
4.4 Fabrication of device-grade amorphous
and microcrystalline silicon . . . . . . .............162
4.5 Lightmanagement ........................168
4.6 Advanceddevicearchitectureandrecorddevices ........173
4.7 Industrialisation and large-area production technology .....183
Acknowledgements ...........................193
References................................193
5. Polycrystalline Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Devices 209
T. A. Gessert and D. Bonnet
5.1 Introduction............................209
5.2 BriefhistoryofCdTePVdevices.................210
5.3 Initial attempts towards commercial modules . .........211
5.4 Review of present commercial industry/device designs .....213
5.5 GeneralCdTematerialproperties ................214
5.6 Layer-specific process description for superstrate CdTedevices ...........................218
5.7 Whereisthejunction? ......................234
5.8 Considerationsforlarge-scaledeployment............236
5.9 Conclusions............................239
Acknowledgements ...........................239
References................................239
6. Cu(In,Ga)Se2and Related Solar Cells 245
U. Rau and H. W. Schock
6.1 Introduction............................245
6.2 Materialproperties ........................247
6.3 Cell and module technology . . . . . . .............253
6.4 Device physics . . ........................271
6.5 Wide-gapchalcopyrites......................288
6.6 Kesterite(CZTS)solarcells ...................294
6.7 Conclusions............................294
References................................295
7. Super-High-Efficiency III–V Tandem and Multijunction Cells 307
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