EBOOK - Modern RF and Microwave Measurement Techniques (The Cambridge RF and Microwave Engineering Series) - (Valeria Teppati & Andrea)


In the last few years, the field of microwave testing has been evolving rapidly with the development and introduction of digital techniques and microprocessor based instruments, and reaching higher and higher frequencies. Nevertheless, the basic underlying concepts, such as frequency synthesis, network analysis and calibration, and spectrum analysis, still constrain even the more modern equipment.
In recent years, microwave instrumentation has had to meet new testing equirements, from 3G and now LTE wireless networks, for millimeter wave and THz applications. Thus instrumentation and measurement techniques have evolved from traditional instruments, such as vector network analyzers (VNAs), to increasingly more complex multifunction platforms, managing time and frequency domains in a unified, extensive approach.
We can identify two main directions of evolution:
• linear measurements, essentially S-parameter techniques;
• nonlinear measurements, for high power and nonlinear device characterization.
S-parameter measurements have been moving towards the multiport and millimeter wave fields. The first to characterize multi-channel transmission structures such as digital buses, and the latter for space or short-range radio communication or security scanner applications. New calibrations and instrument architectures have been introduced to improve accuracy, versatility and speed.
Nonlinear applications have also evolved. Traditional high power transistor characterization by load-pull techniques now also typically includes time domain waveform measurements under nonlinear conditions. These techniques can nowadays also handle the broadband signals used in most communication links, or pulsed signals. Moreover, even nonlinear measurements had to evolve to multiport, with differential and common mode impedance tuning, due to the spreading of amplifiers and devices exploiting differential configuration.
The idea of a comprehensive book on microwave measurement was born when we noticed that the knowledge of these modern instrumentation and measurement techniques was scattered inside different books or papers, sometimes dealing more with design or modeling than with the measurement itself or the metrological aspects, and there was no recent book covering these topics extensively.

We thus tried to make an effort to produce a book that could:
• give an overview of modern techniques for measurements at microwave requencies;
• be as complete and comprehensive as possible, giving general concepts in a unitary way;
• treatmoderntechniques, i.e. the state of the art and all the most recent developments.
As editors of the book, we have been honored to work with several international experts in the field, who contributed their invaluable experience to the various chapters of this book. This multi-author approach should guarantee the reader a deep understanding of such a complex and sophisticated matter as microwave measurements.

The book is structured in four main sections:
1. general concepts
2. microwave instrumentation
3. linear measurement techniques
4. nonlinear measurement techniques.
An already expert reader may directly jump to a specific topic, to read about innovative instruments or techniques, such as synthesizers, modular RF instruments, multiport VNAs or broadband load-pull techniques, or follow the book’s organization that will guide him/her through the development of the instruments and their applications.
Fifteen chapters form the body of the four book sections. Two of them describe fundamentals, from the theory behind the S-parameters to the interconnections; five chapters are then devoted to microwave instrumentation: synthesizers, network and spectrum analyzers, power meters, up to modern microwave modular instrumentation. The third section on linear measurements covers traditional two-port S-parameter calibration,
multiport S-parameter techniques, noise measurements and time domain reflectometry techniques. Finally the last section on nonlinear measurements describes nonlinear VNAs, load-pull, broadband load-pull, and concludes with pulsed measurements.
All the content is correlated with details on metrological aspects whenever possible, and with some examples of typical use, though we have tried to be as independent as possible of a specific device under test and to concentrate on the measurement technique rather than the particular application.

Part I General concepts 1
1 Transmission lines and scattering parameters 3
Roger Pollard and Mohamed Sayed
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Fundamentals of transmission lines, models and equations 3
1.2.1 Introduction 3
1.2.2 Propagation and characteristic impedance 4
1.2.3 Terminations, reflection coefficient, SWR, return loss 7
1.2.4 Power transfer to load 8
1.3 Scattering parameters 8
1.4 Microwave directional coupler 11
1.4.1 General concepts 11
1.4.2 The reflectometer 12
1.5 Smith Chart 13
1.6 Conclusions 16
References 20
Appendix A Signal flow graphs 16
Appendix B Transmission lines types 18
2 Microwave interconnections, probing, and fixturing 21
Leonard Hayden
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Device boundaries and measurement reference planes 21
2.2.1 Devices 22
2.2.2 Transmission lines 22
2.2.3 Circuits 23
viii Contents
2.3 Signal-path fixture performance measures 24
2.3.1 Delay 24
2.3.2 Loss 24
2.3.3 Mismatch 25
2.3.4 Crosstalk 27
2.3.5 Multiple-modes 28
2.3.6 Electromagnetic discontinuity 29
2.4 Power-ground fixture performance measures 30
2.4.1 Non-ideal power 30
2.4.2 Non-ideal ground 32
2.5 Fixture loss performance and measurement accuracy 33
2.6 Microwave probing 34
2.6.1 Probing system elements 35
2.6.2 VNA calibration of a probing system 36
2.6.3 Probing applications – in situ test 37
2.6.4 Probing applications – transistor characterization 37
2.7 Conclusion 38
References 38
Part II Microwave instrumentation 39
3 Microwave synthesizers 41
Alexander Chenakin
3.1 Introduction 41
3.2 Synthesizer characteristics 41
3.2.1 Frequency and timing 42
3.2.2 Spectral purity 43
3.2.3 Output power 47
3.3 Synthesizer architectures 47
3.3.1 Direct analog synthesizers 47
3.3.2 Direct digital synthesizers 50
3.3.3 Indirect synthesizers 52
3.3.4 Hybrid architectures 54
3.4 Signal generators 55
3.4.1 Power calibration and control 55
3.4.2 Frequency and power sweep 57
3.4.3 Modulation 58
3.5 Conclusions 62
References 62
4 Real-time spectrum analysis and time-correlated measurements applied to
nonlinear system characterization 64
Marcus Da Silva
4.1 Introduction 64
4.1.1 Types of spectrum analyzers 65
4.2 Spectrum analysis in real-time 68
4.2.1 Real-time criteria 69
4.2.2 Theoretical background 69
4.3 Spectrum analysis using discrete Fourier transforms 70
4.3.1 The Fourier transform for discrete-time signals 70
4.3.2 Regularly spaced sequential DFTs 71
4.4 Windowing and resolution bandwidth (RBW) 72
4.4.1 Windowing considerations 74
4.4.2 Resolution bandwidth (RBW) 75
4.5 Real-time specifications 76
4.5.1 Real-time criteria 76
4.5.2 Minimum event duration for 100% probability of intercept at the
specified accuracy 76
4.5.3 Comparison with swept analyzers 78
4.5.4 Processing all information within a signal with
no loss of information 80
4.5.5 Windowing and overlap 81
4.5.6 Sequential DFTs as a parallel bank of filters 83
4.5.7 Relating frame rate, frame overlap, and RBW 85
4.5.8 Criteria for processing all signals in the input waveform with no
loss of information 85
4.6 Applications of real-time spectrum analysis 85
4.6.1 Displaying real-time spectrum analysis data 85
4.6.2 Digital persistence displays 86
4.6.3 The DPX spectrum display engine 86
4.7 Triggering in the frequency domain 88
4.7.1 Digital triggering 88
4.7.2 Triggering in systems with digital acquisition 89
4.7.3 RTSA trigger sources 90
4.7.4 Frequency mask trigger (FMT) 90
4.7.5 Frequency mask trigger time resolution and time alignment 91
4.7.6 Other real-time triggers 92
4.8 Application examples: using real-time technologies to solve
nonlinear challenges 92
4.8.1 Discovering transient signals 92
4.8.2 Adjacent channel power (ACP) violation caused by power supply
fluctuations 93
4.8.3 Software errors affecting RF performance 93
x Contents
4.8.4 Memory effects in digitally pre-distorted (DPD) amplifiers 95
4.9 Conclusions 96
End Notes 96
References 97
5 Vector network analyzers 98
Mohamed Sayed and Jon Martens
5.1 Introduction 98
5.2 History of vector network analyzers 98
5.2.1 Pre-HP-8510 VNA – 1950–1984 98
5.2.2 HP-8510 VNA System – 1984–2001 99
5.2.3 Evolution of VNA to the Present – 2001–2012 101
5.3 Authors’ remarks and comments 101
5.4 RF and microwave VNA technology 101
5.4.1 Sources 103
5.4.2 Switches 107
5.4.3 Directional devices 109
5.4.4 Down-converters (RF portion of the receivers) 113
5.4.5 IF sections 117
5.4.6 System performance considerations 119
5.5 Measurement types in the VNA 121
5.5.1 Gain, attenuation, and distortion 121
5.5.2 Phase and group delay 121
5.5.3 Noise figure measurements 121
5.5.4 Pulsed RF measurements 121
5.5.5 Nonlinear measurements of active and passive devices 122
5.5.6 Multi-port and differential measurements 122
5.5.7 Load-pull and harmonic load-pull 122
5.5.8 Antenna measurements 122
5.5.9 Materials measurements 122
5.6 Device types for VNA measurements 123
5.6.1 Passive devices such as cables, connectors, adaptors, attenuators,
and filters 123
5.6.2 Low power active devices such as low noise amplifiers, linear
amplifiers, and buffer amplifiers 123
5.6.3 High power active devices such as base station amplifiers and
narrow-band amplifiers 123
5.6.4 Frequency translation devices such as mixers, multipliers,
up/down-converters and dividers 123
5.6.5 On-wafer measurements of the above devices 124
5.7 Improving VNA measurement range 125
5.7.1 Using a switch matrix box 125
5.7.2 Using multiple sources 125
5.7.3 Using reversing couplers 126
5.7.4 Using an external amplifier/attenuator 126
5.7.5 All-in-one VNA box 126
5.8 Practical tips for using VNAs 127
5.8.1 User training 127
5.8.2 Connector care 127
5.8.3 Temperature environment and stability 128
5.8.4 Measurement locations: production, development or research 128
5.9 Calibration and calibration kits 128
5.10 Conclusions 128
References 129
6 Microwave power measurements 130
Ronald Ginley
6.1 Introduction 130
6.1.1 Why power and not voltage and current? 131
6.2 Power basics, definitions, and terminology 131
6.2.1 Basic definitions 132
6.2.2 Different types of power measurements 132
6.3 Power detectors and instrumentation 136
6.3.1 Bolometric detectors 137
6.3.2 Thermoelectric detectors 138
6.3.3 Diode detectors 139
6.3.4 Power meters 142
6.3.5 Power measurements and frequency ranges 142
6.3.6 Power levels and detectors 143
6.4 Primary power standards 143
6.4.1 The microcalorimeter 145
6.4.2 The dry load calorimeter 146
6.4.3 Voltage and impedance technique 147
6.5 Basic power measurement techniques 148
6.5.1 Mismatch factor 149
6.5.2 Measuring power through an adapter 150
6.5.3 Power meter reference 151
6.6 Uncertainty considerations 151
6.6.1 Power meter uncertainty – uncertainty inPsub 152
6.6.2 ηDetuncertainty 152
6.6.3 Mismatch uncertainty 152
6.6.4 Adapter uncertainty 153
6.6.5 Device repeatability 153
6.7 Examples 154
6.8 Conclusions 157
References 157
7 Modular systems for RF and microwave measurements 160
Jin Bains
7.1 Introduction 160
7.1.1 Virtual instrumentation 161
7.1.2 Instrumentation standards for modular instruments 163
7.1.3 PXI architecture 165
7.1.4 The role of graphical system design software 167
7.1.5 Architecture of RF modular instruments 169
7.2 Understanding software-designed systems 171
7.2.1 Measurement speed 171
7.3 Multi-channel measurement systems 175
7.3.1 Phase coherence and synchronization 176
7.3.2 MIMO 179
7.3.3 Direction finding 180
7.3.4 Phase array 183
7.4 Highly customized measurement systems 184
7.4.1 IQ data conditioning (flatness calibration) 184
7.4.2 Streaming 184
7.4.3 Integrating FPGA technology 186
7.5 Evolution of graphical system design 189
7.6 Summary 190
References 191
Part III Linear measurements 193
8 Two-port network analyzer calibration 195
Andrea Ferrero
8.1 Introduction 195
8.2 Error model 195
8.3 One-port calibration 198
8.4 Two-port VNA error model 201
8.4.1 Eight-term error model 202
8.4.2 Forward reverse error model 204
8.5 Calibration procedures 207
8.5.1 TSD/TRL procedure 208
8.5.2 SOLR procedure 210
8.5.3 LRM procedure 211
8.5.4 SOLT procedure 215
8.6 Recent developments 216
8.7 Conclusion 217
References 217
Contents xiii
9 Multiport and differential S-parameter measurements 219
Valeria Teppati and Andrea Ferrero
9.1 Introduction 219
9.2 Multiport S-parameters measurement methods 220
9.2.1 Calibration of a complete reflectometer multiport VNA 221
9.2.2 Calibration of a partial reflectometer multiport VNA 225
9.2.3 Multiport measurement example 229
9.3 Mixed-mode S-parameter measurements 230
9.3.1 Mixed-mode multiport measurement example 235
References 237
10 Noise figure characterization 240
Nerea Otegi, Juan-Mari Collantes, and Mohamed Sayed
10.1 Introduction 240
10.2 Noise figure fundamentals 241
10.2.1 Basic definitions and concepts 241
10.2.2 Two noise figure characterization concepts:
Y-factor and cold-source 246
10.3 Y-factor technique 247
10.4 Cold-source technique 249
10.5 Common sources of error 251
10.5.1 Mismatch 252
10.5.2 Temperature effects 258
10.5.3 Measurement setup 260
10.6 Noise figure characterization of mixers 265
10.6.1 Noise figure definitions for frequency translating devices 266
10.6.2 Obtaining the SSB noise figure from Y-factor and cold-source 270
10.7 Conclusion 274
References 275
11 TDR-based S-parameters 279
Peter J. Pupalaikis and Kaviyesh Doshi
11.1 Introduction 279
11.2 TDR pulser/sampler architecture 279
11.3 TDR timebase architecture 282
11.4 TDR methods for determining wave direction 286
11.5 Basic method for TDR-based S-parameter measurement 290
11.6 Summary of key distinctions between TDR and VNA 293
11.7 Dynamic range calculations 294
11.8 Dynamic range implications 298
11.9 Systematic errors and uncertainty due to measurement noise in a network analyzer 300
11.9.1 Error propagation for a one-port DUT 300
11.10 Conclusions 304
References 304
Part IV Nonlinear measurements 307
12 Vector network analysis for nonlinear systems 309
Yves Rolain, Gerd Vandersteen, and Maarten Schoukens
12.1 Introduction 309
12.2 Is there a need for nonlinear analysis? 309
12.2.1 The plain-vanilla linear time-invariant world 309
12.2.2 Departure from LTI 310
12.2.3 Measuring a non-LTI system 310
12.2.4 Figures of merit to characterize the nonlinearity 311
12.3 The basic assumptions 312
12.3.1 Restricting the class of systems: PISPO systems 313
12.3.2 Influence of the excitation signal 315
12.3.3 The definition of the nonlinear operating point 320
12.4 Principle of operation of an NVNA 320
12.4.1 Introduction 320
12.4.2 Basic requirements for nonlinear characterization 321
12.4.3 A calibration for nonlinear measurements 323
12.5 Translation to instrumentation 327
12.5.1 Oscilloscope-based receiver setups 328
12.5.2 Sampler-based receiver setups 331
12.5.3 VNA-based setups 338
12.5.4 IQ-modulator based setups 341
12.6 Conclusion, problems, and future perspectives 342
References 343
13 Load- and source-pull techniques 345
Valeria Teppati, Andrea Ferrero, and Gian Luigi Madonna
13.1 Introduction 345
13.2 Setting the load conditions: passive techniques 347
13.2.1 Basics 348
13.2.2 Harmonic load-pull with passive tuners 349
13.3 Setting the load conditions: active, open-loop techniques 350
13.4 Setting the load conditions: active-loop techniques 352
13.4.1 Active loop: basics 352
13.4.2 Stability analysis of the active loop 353
13.4.3 Practical active-loop implementations 355
13.4.4 Wideband load-pull 356
13.4.5 Combining passive tuners and active techniques 357
13.5 Measuring the DUT single-frequency characteristics 359
13.5.1 Real-time vs. non-real-time load-pull measurements 360
13.5.2 Calibration of real-time systems 361
13.5.3 Mixed-mode, harmonic load-pull systems 365
13.6 Measuring the DUT time domain waveforms 368
13.6.1 Load-pull waveform techniques in the time domain 368
13.6.2 Load-pull waveform techniques in the frequency domain 370
13.6.3 Other calibration approaches 373
13.6.4 Measurement examples 374
13.7 Real-time source-pull techniques 375
13.8 Conclusions 378
References 379
14 Broadband large-signal measurements for linearity optimization 384
Marco Spirito and Mauro Marchetti
14.1 Introduction 384
14.2 Electrical delay in load-pull systems 385
14.3 Broadband load-pull architectures 386
14.3.1 Detection scheme 386
14.3.2 RF front-end 388
14.3.3 System calibration 392
14.4 Broadband loads 392
14.4.1 Closed-loop active loads 392
14.4.2 Mixed-signal active loads 395
14.5 System operating frequency and bandwidth 400
14.6 Injection power and load amplifer linearity 400
14.7 Baseband impedance control 403
14.8 Broadband large-signal measurement examples 405
14.8.1 IMD asymmetries measurements 405
14.8.2 Phase delay cancellation 407
14.8.3 High power measurements with modulated signals 408
References 411
15 Pulse and RF measurement 414
Anthony Parker
15.1 Introduction 414
15.2 Dynamic characteristics 414
15.3 Large-signal isodynamic measurements 417
15.3.1 Measurement outside safe-operating areas 418
15.3.2 Pulsed-RF characteristics 418
15.4 Dynamic processes 418
15.4.1 Temperature and self-heating 419
15.4.2 Charge trapping 420
15.4.3 Impact ionization 422
15.5 Transient measurements 423
15.5.1 Measurement of gate lag 423
15.5.2 Time evolution characteristics 426
15.6 Pulsed measurement equipment 427
15.6.1 System architecture 427
15.6.2 Timing 430
15.7 Broadband RF linearity measurements 431
15.7.1 Weakly nonlinear intermodulation 432
15.7.2 Intermodulation from self-heating 433
15.7.3 Measuring heating response 435
15.7.4 Measuring charge trapping response 436
15.7.5 Measurement of impact ionization 437
15.8 Further investigation 438
References 439

LINK DOWNLOAD
M_tả

No comments: