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Mar 10, 2018

EBOOK - Automotive computer controlled systems (Allan Bonnick)


EBOOK - Hệ thống điều khiển máy tính ô tô (Allan Bonnick) - 266 Trang.

Improvements in design, materials and manufacturing techniques have combined to produce vehicles that are, in general, very reliable. Many servicing and repair tasks, such as rebores, big-end repairs, gearbox overhauls etc., are no longer commonplace and this sometimes gives the impression that today’s vehicle technicians do not need the range of skills that once were necessary.

It may be the case that the so called ‘traditional’ skills are less important, but the change in automotive technology that has resulted from the introduction of many computer controlled systems has meant that technicians require additional skills. These additional skills are discussed. However, it remains the case that technicians need to have a thorough understanding of technical and scientific principles that lie behind the operation of vehicle systems.
For example, an exhaust emission system may be malfunctioning and a first reaction might be that the exhaust catalyst has failed. But what about other factors, such as air filter, fuel pressure, condition of the injectors, condition of the ignition system, engine valves, cylinder compression etc.?
I have assumed that most readers of this book will be engaged in vehicle service work, in training or education and that they will have knowledge of the basic technology and science that enables them to ‘think through’ the connections between defects in computer controlled systems and the factors that may be contributing to them.

CONTENTS:

1 Common technology 1 ..................................
1.1 Common technology 1 .........................................
1.2 Engine-related systems 2 ....................................
1.3 Ignition systems 2 ................................................
1.3.1 THE CONSTANT ENERGY IGNITION
SYSTEM 2 ..................................................................
1.3.2 DIGITAL (PROGRAMMED) IGNITION
SYSTEM 3 ..................................................................
1.3.3 DISTRIBUTORLESS IGNITION SYSTEM 6 ......
1.3.4 OPTOELECTRONIC SENSING FOR THE
IGNITION SYSTEM 8 .................................................
1.3.5 KNOCK SENSING 9 ..........................................
1.3.6 ADAPTIVE IGNITION 9 .....................................
1.4 Computer controlled petrol fuelling systems 10 .....
1.4.1 SINGLE-POINT INJECTION 11 ...........................
1.4.2 MULTI-POINT INJECTION 13 .............................
1.5 Engine management systems (EMS) 17 ...............
1.5.1 EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION 18 ................
1.5.2 COMPUTER CONTROL OF
EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS 19 ...................................
1.6 Anti-lock braking (ABS) 19 ....................................
1.6.1 OPERATION OF ABS 22 .....................................
1.6.2 SOME GENERAL POINTS ABOUT ABS 22 .......
1.7 Traction control 22 .................................................
1.8 Stability control 25 .................................................
1.9 Air conditioning 27 .................................................
1.9.1 DEALING WITH AIR CONDITIONING
REFRIGERANT 29 .......................................................
1.10 Computer controlled damping rate 30 .................
1.11 Computer controlled diesel engine
management systems 30 ............................................
1.11.1 SPILL CONTROL 33 ..........................................
1.11.2 TIMING CONTROL 35 .......................................
1.11.3 IDLE SPEED CONTROL 35 ..............................
1.12 Summary 38 ........................................................
1.13 Review questions 38 ...........................................
2 The Computer ECM 2 ....................................
2.1 The fundamental parts of a computer 2 ...............
2.1.1 COMPUTER MEMORY 41 ..................................
2.1.2 THE CLOCK 41 ...................................................
2.2 A practical automotive computer system 41 ..........
2.3 Principles of operation 44 ......................................
2.4 Computer data 45 ..................................................
2.4.1 DATA TRANSFERS 45 ........................................
2.4.2 DATA TRANSFER REQUIREMENTS 46 ............
2.5 Computer interfaces 46 .........................................
2.6 Control of output devices 47 ..................................
2.7 Computer memories 48 .........................................
2.7.1 READ ONLY MEMORIES 49 ...............................
2.7.2 RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY 50 .......................
2.7.3 OTHER TYPES OF COMPUTER
MEMORY 50 .................................................................
2.8 Fault codes 51 .......................................................
2.9 Adaptive operating strategy of the ECM 51 ...........
2.9.1 LIMITED OPERATING STRATEGY (LOS) 52 .....
2.10 Networking of computers 52 ................................
2.10.1 A BUS-BASED SYSTEM 52 ..............................
2.10.2 STAR CONNECTED COMPUTERS 52 .............
2.10.3 MESSAGES 53 ..................................................
2.10.4 PROTOCOLS 54 ...............................................
2.11 Vehicle network systems 55 ................................
2.11.1 THE PRINCIPLE OF A BUS-BASED
VEHICLE SYSTEM 55 ..................................................
2.11.2 DATA BUSES FOR DIFFERENT
APPLICATIONS 57 .......................................................
2.11.3 ENCODING SERIAL DATA 57 ..........................
2.12 Prototype network systems 59 ............................
2.13 Summary 62 ........................................................
2.14 Review questions 63 ...........................................
3 Self-diagnosis and fault codes 3 ..................
3.1 Access to DTCs 3 ................................................
3.1.1 METHOD 1: THE DASHBOARD LAMP 4. ..........
3.1.2 METHOD 2: FAULT CODES DISPLAYED
THROUGH A LOGIC PROBE OR TEST LAMP 70 ......
3.1.3 METHOD 3: FAULT CODE READERS
AND SCAN TOOLS 70 .................................................
3.2 Developments in self-diagnosis 78 ........................
3.2.1 OBD I 79 ..............................................................
3.2.2 OBD II 79 .............................................................
3.3 Diagnostic equipment and limitations of
DTCs 3.22 ......................................................................
3.4 Review questions 83 .............................................
4 Diagnostic tools and equipment 4 ...............
4.2 Breakout boxes 94 .................................................
4.1 Diagnostic tools that connect to ECM 4 ...............
4.3 The digital multimeter 95 .......................................
4.4 Portable flat screen oscilloscopes 96 ....................
4.5 Diagnostic tool and oscilloscope combined 97 ......
4.6 Pressure gauges 99 ..............................................
4.6.1 VACUUM PUMPS AND GAUGES 99 ..................
4.7 Calibrating test instruments 103 ..............................
4.8 Location charts and wiring diagrams 103 ................
4.9 Sources of diagnostic data 103 ...............................
4.10 Exhaust gas emissions and emission
system testing 4.21 .........................................................
4.10.1 PETROL ENGINE EMISSIONS 4.21 ....................
4.10.2 DIESEL ENGINE EMISSIONS 108 .....................
4.11 Review questions 110 ...........................................
5 Sensors 5 ........................................................
5.1 Electromagnetic sensors 5 ..................................
5.1.1 THE VARIABLE RELUCTANCE TYPE
SENSOR 5 ..................................................................
5.1.2 HALL EFFECT SENSORS 116 .............................
5.2 Optical sensors 118 .................................................
5.3 Combustion knock sensors 119 ..............................
5.4 Variable resistance type sensors 121 ......................
5.5 Temperature sensors 124 .......................................
5.6 Ride height control sensor 125 ................................
5.7 Manifold absolute pressure (MAP) 126 ...................
5.7.1 THE VARIABLE VOLTAGE MAP SENSOR 127 ...
5.7.2 OTHER MAP SENSORS 129 ................................
5.8 Exhaust gas oxygen sensors 130 ............................
5.8.1 THE VOLTAIC-TYPE EGO SENSOR 132 .............
5.8.2 THE RESISTIVE-TYPE EGO SENSOR 137 .........
5.8.3 ON-BOARD MONITORING OF THE
CATALYTIC CONVERTER 138 ......................................
5.9 Air flow measurement 138 .......................................
5.9.1 HOT WIRE MASS AIR FLOW SENSOR
(MAF) 142 .......................................................................
5.10 The practical importance of sensor
knowledge 144 ..............................................................
5.11 Review questions 144 ...........................................
6 Actuators 6 .....................................................
6.1 Actuator operation 6 ............................................
6.2 Petrol engine fuel injectors 147 ...............................
6.2.1 SINGLE POINT INJECTION 147 ...........................
6.2.2 MULTI-POINT PETROL INJECTION 147 ..............
6.3 Testing of petrol injectors 149 .................................
6.3.1 PEAK AND HOLD 149 ...........................................
6.3.2 CONVENTIONAL SWITCHING TO EARTH 150 ...
6.3.3 PULSE WIDTH MODULATED
INJECTORS 152 .............................................................
6.3.4 FURTHER INJECTOR TESTS 154 .......................
6.4 Exhaust gas recirculation 154 .................................
6.4.1 TESTING THE EGR SENSOR 155 .......................
6.5 Petrol engine idle speed control 155 .......................
6.5.1 STEPPER MOTOR-OPERATED VALVE 157 .......
6.5.2 SOLENOID-OPERATED VALVE 160 ....................
6.6 Ignition system 161 ..................................................
6.7 ABS actuators 161 ...................................................
6.8 A clamping diode 162 ..............................................
6.9 Electronic unit injectors 163 .....................................
6.10 Review questions 165 ...........................................
7 Diagnostic techniques 7 ...............................
7.1 Circuit testing 7 ....................................................
7.2 Vehicle specific details 172 .....................................
7.3 The ’six-steps’ approach 173 ...................................
7.4 Skills required for effective diagnosis 174 ...............
7.5 An approach to fault finding 175 ..............................
7.6 Emissions related testing 179 ..................................
7.6.1 OXYGEN SENSOR 179 ........................................
7.6.2 KNOCK SENSORS 186 .........................................
7.6.3 AIR FLOW METERS 187 .......................................
7.6.4 THROTTLE POSITION SWITCHES 190 ...............
7.6.5 A COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR 192 .......
7.6.6 MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE
SENSOR (MAP) TESTS 195 ..........................................
7.7 Ignition system tests 198 .........................................
7.7.1 TESTS ON DISTRIBUTORLESS
IGNITION DIS 198 ..........................................................
7.8 Diesel injection 200 .................................................
7.8.1 TESTING THE INJECTION POINT
ADVANCE 202 ................................................................
...

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