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Mar 20, 2018

EBOOK - Principles of Water Treatment (Kerry J. Howe & David W. Hand & John C. Crittenden)


EBOOK - Nguyên lý xử lý nước (Kerry J. Howe & David W. Hand & John C. Crittenden) - 674 Trang.

Without water, life cannot exist. Thus, securing an adequate supply of fresh, clean water is essential to the health of humankind and the functioning of modern society. Water is also known as the universal solvent it is capable of dissolving a vast number of natural and synthetic chemicals. Increasing population and the contamination of water with municipal, agricultural, and industrial wastes has led to a deterioration of water quality and nearly all sources of water require some form of treatment before potable use. This textbook is designed to serve as an introduction to the field of water treatment and the processes that are used to make water safe to drink.

CONTENTS.

1. Introduction 1
1-1 The Importance of Principles 2
1-2 The Importance of Sustainability 4
References 4

2. Water Quality and Public Health 5
2-1 Relationship between Water Quality and Public Health 5
2-2 Source Waters for Municipal Drinking Water Systems 9
2-3 Regulations of Water Treatment in the United States 17
2-4 Evolving Trends and Challenges in Drinking Water Treatment 21
2-5 Summary and Study Guide 23
References 24

3. Process Selection 25
3-1 Process Selection Based on Contaminant Properties 26
3-2 Other Considerations in Process Selection 30
3-3 Sustainability and Energy Considerations 34
3-4 Design and Selection of Process Trains 39
3-5 Summary and Study Guide 42
Homework Problems 43
References 45

4 Fundamental Principles of Environmental Engineering 47
4-1 Units of Expression for Chemical Concentrations 48
4-2 Chemical Equilibrium 51
4-3 Chemical Kinetics 60
4-4 Reactions Used in Water Treatment 63
4-5 Mass Balance Analysis 66
4-6 Introduction to Reactors and Reactor Analysis 73
4-7 Reactions in Batch Reactors 77
4-8 Hydraulic Characteristics of Ideal Flow Reactors 80
4-9 Reactions in Ideal Flow Reactors 84
4-10 Measuring the Hydraulic Characteristics of Flow Reactors with Tracer Tests 88
4-11 Describing the Hydraulic Performance of Real Flow Reactors 95
4-12 Reactions in Real Flow Reactors 101
4-13 Introduction to Mass Transfer 103
4-14 Molecular Diffusion 104
4-15 Diffusion Coefficients 106
4-16 Models and Correlations for Mass Transfer at an Interface 115
4-17 Evaluating the Concentration Gradient with Operating Diagrams 126
4-18 Summary and Study Guide 131
Homework Problems 133
References 138

5. Coagulation and Flocculation 139
5-1 Role of Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment 140
5-2 Stability of Particles in Water 142
5-3 Principles of Coagulation 149
5-4 Coagulation Practice 150
5-5 Principles of Mixing for Coagulation and Flocculation 162
5-6 Rapid-Mix Practice 163
5-7 Principles of Flocculation 165
5-8 Flocculation Practice 170
5-9 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 186
5-10 Summary and Study Guide 187
Homework Problems 188
References 190

6. Sedimentation 193
6-1 Principles of Discrete (Type I) Particle Settling 196
6-2 Discrete Settling in Ideal Rectangulor Sedimentation Basins 201
6-3 Principles of Flocculant (Type II) Particle Settling 205
6-4 Principles of Hindered (Type III) Settling 206
6-5 Conventional Sedimentation Basin Design 211
6-6 Alternative Sedimentation Processes 220
6-7 Physical Factors Affecting Sedimentation 228
6-8 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 230
6-9 Summary and Study Guide 231
Homework Problems 232
References 234

7. Rapid Granular Filtration 235
7-1 Physical Description of a Rapid Granular Filter 236
7-2 Process Description of Rapid Filtration 242
7-3 Particle Capture in Granular Filtration 246
7-4 Head Loss through a Clean Filter Bed 255
7-5 Modeling of Performance and Optimization 258
7-6 Backwash Hydraulics 266
7-7 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 273
7-8 Summary and Study Guide 274
Homework Problems 275
References 278

8. Membrane Filtration 281
8-1 Classification of Membrane Processes 282
8-2 Comparison to Rapid Granular Filtration 284
8-3 Principal Features of Membrane Filtration Equipment 286
8-4 Process Description of Membrane Filtration 296
8-5 Particle Capture in Membrane Filtration 301
8-6 Hydraulics of Flow through Membrane Filters 305
8-7 Membrane Fouling 309
8-8 Sizing of Membrane Skids 316
8-9 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 319
8-10 Summary and Study Guide 321
Homework Problems 322
References 325

9. Reverse Osmosis 327
9-1 Principal Features of a Reverse Osmosis Facility 329
9-2 Osmotic Pressure and Reverse Osmosis 335
9-3 Mass Transfer of Water and Solutes through RO Membranes 339
9-4 Performance Dependence on Temperature and Pressure 343
9-5 Concentration Polarization 348
9-6 Fouling and Scaling 353
9-7 Element Selection and Membrane Array Design 359
9-8 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 361
9-9 Summary and Study Guide 364
Homework Problems 365
References 368

10. Adsorption and Ion Exchange 369
10-1 Introduction to the Adsorption Process 370
10-2 Adsorption Equilibrium 377
10-3 Adsorption Kinetics 382
10-4 Introduction to the Ion Exchange Process 386
10-5 Ion Exchange Equilibrium 395
10-6 Ion Exchange Kinetics 399
10-7 Fixed-Bed Contactors 400
10-8 Suspended-Media Reactors 423
10-9 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 429
10-10 Summary and Study Guide 430
Homework Problems 431
References 435

11. Air Stripping and Aeration 437
11-1 Types of Air Stripping and Aeration Contactors 438
11-2 Gas –Liquid Equilibrium 443
11-3 Fundamentals of Packed Tower Air Stripping 449
11-4 Design and Analysis of Packed-Tower Air Stripping 459
11-5 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 471
11-6 Summary and Study Guide 472
Homework Problems 473
References 475

12. Advanced Oxidation 477
12-1 Introduction to Advanced Oxidation 479
12-2 Ozonation as an Advanced Oxidation Process 486
12-3 Hydrogen Peroxide/Ozone Process 494
12-4 Hydrogen Peroxide/UV Light Process 505
12-5 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 518
12-6 Summary and Study Guide 519
Homework Problems 520
References 522

13. Disinfection 525
13-1 Disinfection Agents and Systems 526
13-2 Disinfection with Free and Combined Chlorine 532
13-3 Disinfection with Chlorine Dioxide 538
13-4 Disinfection with Ozone 538
13-5 Disinfection with Ultraviolet Light 543
13-6 Disinfection Kinetics 555
13-7 Disinfection Kinetics in Real Flow Reactors 565
13-8 Design of Disinfection Contactors with Low Dispersion 567
13-9 Disinfection By-products 572
13-10 Residual Maintenance 575
13-11 Energy and Sustainability Considerations 576
13-12 Summary and Study Guide 578
Homework Problems 579
References 581

14. Residuals Management 585
14-1 Defining the Problem 586
14-2 Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of Residuals 591
14-3 Alum and Iron Coagulation Sludge 595
14-4 Liquid Wastes from Granular Media Filters 599
14-5 Management of Residual Liquid Streams 601
14-6 Management of Residual Sludge 604
14-7 Ultimate Reuse and Disposal of Semisolid Residuals 614
14-8 Summary and Study Guide 616
Homework Problems 617
References 618

Appendix A Conversion Factors 621
Appendix B Physical Properties of Selected Gases and Composition of Air 627
B-1 Density of Air at Other Temperatures 629
B-2 Change in Atmospheric Pressure with Elevation 629
Appendix C Physical Properties of Water 631
Appendix D Periodic Table 633
Appendix E Electronic Resources Available on the John Wiley & Sons Website for This Textbook.

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