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Apr 15, 2018

EBOOK - Fundamentals of Geotechnical Engineering (Braja M. Das)


EBOOK - Các nguyên tắc cơ bản của địa kỹ thuật (Braja M. Das) - 638 Trang.

Principles of Foundation EngineeringandPrinciples of Geotechnical Engineering were originally published in 1984 and 1985, respectively. These texts were well received by instructors, students, and practitioners alike. Depending on the needs of the users, the texts were revised and are presently in their sixth editions.

Toward the latter part of 1998, there were several requests to prepare a single volume that was concise in nature but combined the essential components of Principles of Foundation Engineeringand Principles of Geotechnical Engineering. In response to those requests, the first edition of Fundamentals of Geotechnical Engineeringwas published in 2000, followed by the second edition in 2004 with a 2005 copyright. These editions include the fundamental concepts of soil mechanics as well as foundation engineering, including bearing capacity and settlement of shallow foundations (spread footings and mats), retaining walls, braced cuts, piles, and drilled shafts.

1 Geotechnical Engineering—A Historical Perspective 1
1.1 Geotechnical Engineering Prior to the 18th
Century 1
1.2 Preclassical Period of Soil Mechanics (1700 –1776) 4
1.3 Classical Soil Mechanics—Phase I (1776 –1856) 5
1.4 Classical Soil Mechanics—Phase II (1856 –1910) 5
1.5 Modern Soil Mechanics (1910 –1927) 6
1.6 Geotechnical Engineering after 1927 7
References 11
2 Soil Deposits and Grain-Size Analysis 13
2.1 Natural Soil Deposits-General 13
2.2 Residual Soil 14
2.3 Gravity Transported Soil 14
2.4 Alluvial Deposits 14
2.5 Lacustrine Deposits 16
2.6 Glacial Deposits 17
2.7 Aeolian Soil Deposits 17
2.8 Organic Soil 18
2.9 Soil-Particle Size 19
2.10 Clay Minerals 20
2.11 Specific Gravity (Gs)23
2.12 Mechanical Analysis of Soil 24
2.13 Effective Size, Uniformity Coefficient, and Coefficient of Gradation 32
Problems 35
References 37
3 Weight–Volume Relationships, Plasticity, and Soil Classification 38
3.1 Weight –Volume Relationships 38
3.2 Relationships among Unit Weight, Void Ratio,
Moisture Content, and Specific Gravity 41
3.3 Relationships among Unit Weight, Porosity, and Moisture Content 44
3.4 Relative Density 51
3.5 Consistency of Soil 53
3.6 Activity 60
3.7 Liquidity Index 62
3.8 Plasticity Chart 62
3.9 Soil Classification 63
Problems 75
References 77
4 Soil Compaction 78
4.1 Compaction—General Principles 78
4.2 Standard Proctor Test 79
4.3 Factors Affecting Compaction 83
4.4 Modified Proctor Test 86
4.5 Empirical Relationships 90
4.6 Field Compaction 91
4.7 Specifications for Field Compaction 94
4.8 Determination of Field Unit Weight after Compaction 96
4.9 Special Compaction Techniques 99
4.10 Effect of Compaction on Cohesive Soil Properties 104
Problems 107
References 109
5 Hydraulic Conductivity and Seepage 111
Hydraulic Conductivity 111
5.1 Bernoulli’s Equation 111
5.2 Darcy’s Law 113
5.3 Hydraulic Conductivity 115
5.4 Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity 116
5.5 Empirical Relations for Hydraulic Conductivity 122
5.6 Equivalent Hydraulic Conductivity in Stratified Soil 129
5.7 Permeability Test in the Field by Pumping from Wells 131
Seepage 134
5.8 Laplace’s Equation of Continuity 134
5.9 Flow Nets 136
Problems 142
References 146
6 Stresses in a Soil Mass 147
Effective Stress Concept 147
6.1 Stresses in Saturated Soil without Seepage 147
6.2 Stresses in Saturated Soil with Seepage 151
6.3 Effective Stress in Partially Saturated Soil 156
6.4 Seepage Force 157
6.5 Heaving in Soil Due to Flow Around Sheet Piles 159
Vertical Stress Increase Due to Various Types of Loading 161
6.6 Stress Caused by a Point Load 161
6.7 Westergaard’s Solution for Vertical Stress Due to a Point Load 163
6.8 Vertical Stress Caused by a Line Load 165
6.9 Vertical Stress Caused by a Line Load of Finite Length 166
6.10 Vertical Stress Caused by a Strip Load (Finite Width and Infinite Length) 170
6.11 Vertical Stress Below a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area 172
6.12 Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area 174
6.13 Solutions for Westergaard Material 179
Problems 180
References 185
7 Consolidation 186
7.1 Fundamentals of Consolidation 186
7.2 One-Dimensional Laboratory Consolidation Test 188
7.3 Void Ratio–Pressure Plots 190
7.4 Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Clays 192
7.5 Effect of Disturbance on Void Ratio–Pressure Relationship 194
7.6 Calculation of Settlement from One-Dimensional Primary Consolidation 196
7.7 Compression Index (Cc) and Swell Index (Cs) 198
7.8 Settlement from Secondary Consolidation 203
7.9 Time Rate of Consolidation 206
7.10 Coefficient of Consolidation 212
7.11 Calculation of Primary Consolidation Settlement under a Foundation 220
7.12 Skempton-Bjerrum Modification for Consolidation Settlement 223
7.13 Precompression—General Considerations 227
7.14 Sand Drains 231
Problems 237
References 241
8 Shear Strength of Soil 243
8.1 Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criteria 243
8.2 Inclination of the Plane of Failure Caused by Shear 245
Laboratory Determination of Shear Strength Parameters 247
8.3 Direct Shear Test 247
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