EBOOK - Design and Optimization of Thermal Systems 2 Ed (Yogesh Jaluria)


EBOOK - Thiết kế và tối ưu các hệ thống nhiệt 2 Ed (Yogesh Jaluria) - 753 Trang.

Thermal systems play an increasingly symbiotic role alongside mechanical systems in varied applications spanning materials processing, energy conversion, pollution, aerospace, and automobiles. Responding to the need for a flexible, yet systematic approach to designing thermal systems across such diverse fields, Design and Optimization of Thermal Systems, Second Edition provides hands-on guidance needed to solve practical and progressively complex design problems.
This bookoffers a thorough examination of basic concepts and procedures for conceptual design, formulation, modeling, simulation, feasible design, and optimization. The chapters encompass traditional as well as emerging techniques, featuring timely and compelling examples to demonstrate the range of potential problems and available solutions that readers may apply to their own needs.


Maintaining its emphasis on mathematical modeling and simulation techniques, this revised edition offers extended coverage on manufacturability, material selection, and sensitivity. It includes new material on genetic and gradient search methods and highlights significant trends such as knowledge-based design methodology. This edition also updates and enhances its coverage of important economic, safety, security, and environmental aspects and considerations.

CONTENTS:

Chapter 1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 1
1.1 Engineering Design ..................................................................................... 2
1.1.1 Design Versus Analysis .................................................................. 2
1.1.2 Synthesis for Design ....................................................................... 6
1.1.3 Selection Versus Design.................................................................. 7
1.2 Design as Part of Engineering Enterprise ................................................... 9
1.2.1 Need or Opportunity ....................................................................... 9
1.2.2 Evaluation and Market Analysis ................................................... 10
1.2.3 Feasibility and Chances of Success .............................................. 12
1.2.4 Engineering Design ...................................................................... 14
1.2.5 Research and Development ........................................................... 15
1.2.6 Need for Optimization .................................................................. 16
1.2.7 Fabrication, Testing, and Production ............................................ 18
1.3 Thermal Systems ....................................................................................... 19
1.3.1 Basic Characteristics ..................................................................... 19
1.3.2 Analysis ......................................................................................... 22
1.3.3 Types and Examples ..................................................................... 25
1.4 Outline and Scope of the Book ................................................................. 40
1.5 Summary ................................................................................................... 43
References ........................................................................................................... 44
Chapter 2 Basic Considerations in Design ..................................................... 47
2.1 Formulation of the Design Problem .......................................................... 47
2.1.1 Requirements and Specifications .................................................. 47
2.1.2 Given Quantities ........................................................................... 50
2.1.3 Design Variables ........................................................................... 51
2.1.4 Constraints or Limitations ............................................................ 53
2.1.5 Additional Considerations ............................................................ 55
2.2 Conceptual Design .................................................................................... 58
2.2.1 Innovative Conceptual Design ...................................................... 58
2.2.2 Selection from Available Concepts ............................................... 62
2.2.3 Modifications in the Design of Existing Systems ......................... 64
2.3 Steps in the Design Process ...................................................................... 70
2.3.1 Physical System............................................................................. 72
2.3.2 Modeling ....................................................................................... 75
2.3.3 Simulation ..................................................................................... 76
2.3.4 Evaluation: Acceptable Design ..................................................... 81
2.3.5 Optimal Design ............................................................................. 83
2.3.6 Safety Features, Automation, and Control ................................... 86
2.3.7 Communicating the Design .......................................................... 90
2.3.8 Patents and Copyrights ................................................................. 92
2.4 Computer-Aided Design ............................................................................ 97
2.4.1 Main Features ............................................................................... 97
2.4.2 Computer-Aided Design of Thermal Systems .............................. 98
2.5 Material Selection ................................................................................... 104
2.5.1 Different Materials ..................................................................... 104
2.5.2 MaterialPropertiesandCharacteristics
for Thermal Systems ................................................................... 108
2.5.3 Selection and Substitution of Materials .......................................110
2.6 Summary ..................................................................................................113
References ..........................................................................................................115
Problems ............................................................................................................116
Chapter 3 Modeling of Thermal Systems .................................................... 125
3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 125
3.1.1 Importance of Modeling in Design ............................................. 125
3.1.2 Basic Features of Modeling ........................................................ 125
3.2 Types of Models ...................................................................................... 128
3.2.1 Analog Models ............................................................................ 129
3.2.2 Mathematical Models ................................................................. 130
3.2.3 Physical Models .......................................................................... 130
3.2.4 Numerical Models ........................................................................131
3.2.5 Interaction Between Models ....................................................... 133
3.2.6 Other Classifications ................................................................... 133
3.3 Mathematical Modeling .......................................................................... 134
3.3.1 General Procedure ...................................................................... 134
3.3.2 Final Model and Validation ........................................................ 160
3.4 Physical Modeling and Dimensional Analysis ........................................ 165
3.4.1 Dimensional Analysis ................................................................. 166
3.4.2 Modeling and Similitude .............................................................176
3.4.3 Overall Physical Model ............................................................... 180
3.5 Curve Fitting ........................................................................................... 180
3.5.1 Exact Fit .......................................................................................181
3.5.2 Best Fit ........................................................................................ 183
3.6 Summary ................................................................................................. 194
References ......................................................................................................... 196
Problems ........................................................................................................... 197
Chapter 4 Numerical Modeling and Simulation .......................................... 207
4.1 Numerical Modeling ............................................................................... 208
4.1.1 General Features ......................................................................... 208
4.1.2 Development of a Numerical Model ............................................210
4.1.3 Available Software .......................................................................211
4.2 Solution Procedures ................................................................................ 212
4.2.1 Linear Algebraic Systems ........................................................... 213
4.2.2 Nonlinear Algebraic Systems ..................................................... 220
4.2.3 Ordinary Differential Equations ................................................. 227
4.2.4 Partial Differential Equations ..................................................... 238
4.3 Numerical Model for a System ................................................................ 247
4.3.1 Modeling of Individual Components .......................................... 248
4.3.2 Merging of Different Models ...................................................... 251
4.3.3 Accuracy and Validation ............................................................. 252
4.4 System Simulation ................................................................................... 253
4.4.1 Importance of Simulation ........................................................... 254
4.4.2 Different Classes ......................................................................... 256
4.4.3 Flow of Information .................................................................... 259
4.5 Methods for Numerical Simulation ......................................................... 264
4.5.1 Steady Lumped Systems ............................................................. 264
4.5.2 Dynamic Simulationof Lumped Systems .................................. 272
4.5.3 Distributed Systems .................................................................... 278
4.5.4 Simulation of Large Systems ...................................................... 282
4.5.5 Numerical Simulation Versus Real System ................................ 283
4.6 Summary ................................................................................................. 284
References ......................................................................................................... 285
Problems ........................................................................................................... 286
Chapter 5 Acceptable Design of a Thermal System:
A Synthesis of Different Design Steps ........................................ 299
5.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 299
5.2 Initial Design ...........................................................................................300
5.3 Design Strategies ..................................................................................... 309
5.3.1 Commonly Used Design Approach ............................................ 309
5.3.2 Other Strategies .......................................................................... 309
5.3.3 Iterative Redesign Procedure ...................................................... 317
5.4 Design of Systems from Different Application Areas ............................ 322
5.4.1 Manufacturing Processes ............................................................ 323
5.4.2 Cooling of Electronic Equipment ............................................... 329
5.4.3 Environmental Systems .............................................................. 336
5.4.4 Heat Transfer Equipment ............................................................ 342
5.4.5 Fluid Flow Systems ..................................................................... 350
5.4.6 Other Areas ................................................................................. 361
5.4.7 Design of Components Versus Design of Systems ..................... 361
5.5 Additional Considerations for Large Practical Systems ......................... 362
5.6 Summary ................................................................................................. 373
References ......................................................................................................... 374
Problems ........................................................................................................... 375
Chapter 6 Economic Considerations ............................................................ 383
6.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 383
6.2 Calculation of Interest ............................................................................. 385
6.2.1 Simple Interest ............................................................................ 385
6.2.2 Compound Interest ...................................................................... 385
6.2.3 Continuous Compounding .......................................................... 387
6.2.4 Effective Interest Rate ................................................................ 388
6.3 Worth of Money as a Function of Time .................................................. 390
6.3.1 Present Worth.............................................................................. 390
6.3.2 Future Worth ............................................................................... 391
6.3.3 Inflation ....................................................................................... 393
6.4 Series of Payments .................................................................................. 396
6.4.1 Future Worth of Uniform Series of Amounts ............................. 396
6.4.2 Present Worth of Uniform Series of Amounts ........................... 397
6.4.3 Continuous Compounding in a Series of Amounts .................... 399
6.4.4 Changing Amount in Series of Payments ...................................400
6.4.5 Shift in Time ............................................................................... 402
6.4.6 Different Frequencies.................................................................. 403
6.4.7 Changes in Schedule ................................................................... 403
6.5 Raising Capital ........................................................................................ 405
6.5.1 Bonds ..........................................................................................406
6.5.2 Stocks .......................................................................................... 408
6.6 Taxes ........................................................................................................ 408
6.6.1 Inclusion of Taxes ....................................................................... 409
6.6.2 Depreciation .................................................................................410
6.7 Economic Factor in Design ......................................................................413
6.7.1 Cost Comparison..........................................................................413
6.7.2 Rate of Return ..............................................................................417
6.8 Application to Thermal Systems ..............................................................419
6.9 Summary ................................................................................................. 421
References ......................................................................................................... 421
Problems ........................................................................................................... 422
Chapter 7 Problem Formulation for Optimization ....................................... 429
7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 429
7.1.1 Optimization in Design ............................................................... 429
7.1.2 Final Optimized Design ...............................................................431
7.2 Basic Concepts ........................................................................................ 432
7.2.1 Objective Function ...................................................................... 432
7.2.2 Constraints .................................................................................. 434
7.2.3 Operating Conditions Versus Hardware ..................................... 437
7.2.4 Mathematical Formulation.......................................................... 438
7.3 Optimization Methods ............................................................................440
7.3.1 Calculus Methods .......................................................................440
7.3.2 Search Methods .......................................................................... 441
7.3.3 Linear and Dynamic Programming ............................................ 442
7.3.4 Geometric Programming ............................................................444
7.3.5 Other Methods ............................................................................444
7.4 Optimization of Thermal Systems .......................................................... 447
7.4.1 Important Considerations ........................................................... 447
7.4.2 Different Approaches .................................................................. 448
7.4.3 Different Types of Thermal Systems ......................................... 449
7.4.4 Examples ..................................................................................... 451
7.4.5 Consideration of the Second Law of Thermodynamics ............. 455
7.5 Practical Aspects in Optimal Design ...................................................... 457
7.5.1 Choice of Variables for Optimization ......................................... 457
7.5.2 Sensitivity Analysis..................................................................... 459
7.5.3 Dependence on ObjectiveFunction: Trade-Offs ........................ 461
7.5.4 Multi-Objective Optimization .................................................... 462
7.5.5 Part of Overall Design Strategy ..................................................464
7.5.6 Change of Concept or Model ...................................................... 465
7.6 Summary ................................................................................................. 466
References ......................................................................................................... 467
Problems ........................................................................................................... 468
Chapter 8 Lagrange Multipliers ................................................................... 473
8.1 Introduction to Calculus Methods ........................................................... 473
8.2 The Lagrange Multiplier Method ............................................................ 475
8.2.1 Basic Approach ........................................................................... 475
8.2.2 Physical Interpretation ................................................................ 477
8.2.3 Significance of the Multipliers .................................................... 485
8.3 Optimization of Unconstrained Problems ............................................... 486
8.3.1 Use of Gradients for Optimization ............................................. 487
8.3.2 Determination of Minimum or Maximum ................................. 487
8.3.3 Conversion of Constrained to Unconstrained
Problem ....................................................................................... 489
8.4 Optimization of Constrained Problems .................................................. 491
8.5 Applicability to Thermal Systems ........................................................... 494
8.5.1 Use of Curve Fitting.................................................................... 494
8.5.2 Examples ..................................................................................... 495
8.5.3 Inequality Constraints ................................................................. 499
8.5.4 Some Practical Considerations ................................................... 500
8.5.5 Computational Approach ............................................................ 501
8.6 Summary ................................................................................................. 503
References ......................................................................................................... 504
Problems ........................................................................................................... 505
Chapter 9 Search Methods ............................................................................511
9.1 Basic Considerations ................................................................................511
9.1.1 Importance of Search Methods ................................................... 512
9.1.2 Types of Approaches ....................................................................513
9.1.3 Application to Thermal Systems .................................................514
9.2 Single-Variable Problem .......................................................................... 515
9.2.1 Uniform Exhaustive Search .........................................................517
9.2.2 Dichotomous Search ....................................................................519
9.2.3 Fibonacci Search ......................................................................... 521
9.2.4 Golden Section and Other Search Methods ................................ 523
9.2.5 Comparison of Different Elimination Methods .......................... 524
9.3 Unconstrained Search with Multiple Variables ....................................... 527
9.3.1 Lattice Search ............................................................................. 529
9.3.2 Univariate Search ........................................................................ 530
9.3.3 Steepest Ascent/Descent Method ............................................... 532
9.4 Multivariable Constrained Optimization ................................................ 537
9.4.1 Penalty Function Method ............................................................ 537
9.4.2 Search Along a Constraint .......................................................... 542
9.5 Examples of Thermal Systems ................................................................ 547
9.6 Summary ..................................................................................................551
References ......................................................................................................... 553
Problems ........................................................................................................... 554
Chapter 10Geometric, Linear, and Dynamic Programming
and Other Methods for Optimization .......................................... 559
10.1 Geometric Programming ........................................................................ 559
10.1.1 Applicability ............................................................................... 560
10.1.2 Unconstrained Optimization ....................................................... 561
10.1.3 Mathematical Proof .................................................................... 570
10.1.4 Constrained Optimization .......................................................... 573
10.1.5 Nonzero Degree of Difficulty ..................................................... 578
10.2 Linear Programming ............................................................................... 579
10.3 Dynamic Programming ........................................................................... 588
10.4 Other Methods ......................................................................................... 590
10.5 Summary ................................................................................................. 591
References ......................................................................................................... 592
Problems ........................................................................................................... 593
Chapter 11Knowledge-Based Design and Additional Considerations ......... 599
11.1 Knowledge-Based Systems ..................................................................... 599
11.1.1 Introduction .................................................................................600
11.1.2 Basic Components ....................................................................... 602
11.1.3 Expert Knowledge ...................................................................... 607
11.1.4 Design Methodology ................................................................... 609
11.1.5 Application to Thermal Systems .................................................610
11.2 Additional Constraints ............................................................................ 621
11.3 Professional Ethics .................................................................................. 623
11.4 Sources of Information ............................................................................ 625
11.5 An Overview of Design of Thermal Systems ......................................... 628
11.6 Summary ................................................................................................. 631
References ......................................................................................................... 632
Problems ........................................................................................................... 633
Design Projects ................................................................................................. 635

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