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CHIA SẺ KIẾN THỨC KỸ THUẬT

Feb 8, 2017

EBOOK - Planning and Installing Solar Thermal Systems - A Guide for Installers Architects and Engineers (Dgs)


The most important supplier of energy for the earth is the sun. The whole of life depends on the sun’s energy. It is the starting point for the chemical and biological processes on our planet. At the same time it is the most environmentally friendly form of all energies, it can be used in many ways, and it is suitable for all social systems.
In the core of the sun a fusion process takes place in which pairs of hydrogen nuclei are fused into helium nuclei.
The energy thus released is radiated into space in the form of electromagnetic radiation. As the sun is 148 million km from the earth, it radiates only a tiny fraction of its energy to the earth. In spite of this, the sun offers more energy in four hours than the human race uses in a whole year.
The age of the sun is estimated by astrophysicists to be about 5 billion years. With a total life expectation of 10 billion years the sun will be available as an energy source for another 5 billion years. Hence from our human perspective the sun offers an unlimited life.


CHAPTER 1: Solar radiation and arguments for its use 1
1.1 Solar radiation 1
1.1.1 Solar energy 1
1.1.2 Astronomical and meteorological bases 1
1.1.3 Influence of orientation and tilt angle 8
1.1.4 Collection of dust and need for cleaning 10
1.2 The finiteness of energy resources 11
1.3 Climate change and its consequences 13
1.4 Good arguments for solar systems 16
CHAPTER 2: Components of solar thermal systems 17
2.1 How does a solar thermal system work? 17
2.2 Collectors 18
2.2.1 Unglazed collectors 21
2.2.2 Glazed flat-plate collectors 21
2.2.3 Vacuum collectors 30
2.2.4 Collector accessories 34
2.2.5 Collector characteristic curves and applications 35
2.2.6 Stagnation temperature 35
2.3 Heat stores 36
2.3.1 Storage materials 36
2.3.2 Domestic hot water stores 37
2.3.3 Buffer store 40
2.3.4 Combination stores 40
2.3.5 The thermostatic mixing valve 46
2.3.6 Connection of washing machines and dishwashers 46
2.3.7 Legionella contamination 46
2.4 Solar circuit 47
2.4.1 Pipelines 47
2.4.2 Solar liquid 48
2.4.3 Solar pumps 50
2.4.4 Solar heat exchanger (heat transfer unit) 51
2.4.5 Return-flow prevention 52
2.4.6 Rapid air bleeders 52
2.4.7 Flowmeters 54
2.4.8 Safety devices in the solar circuit 54
2.4.9 Solar station 55
2.5 Controller 55
2.5.1 Control principles for temperature difference control 59
2.5.2 Digital controller with special functions 59
2.5.3 Temperature sensors 62
2.5.4 Overheating protection 65
CHAPTER 3: Systems for single-family houses 67
3.1 Introduction 67
3.2 Systems for charging/discharging the store 68
3.2.1 Charging by means of solar energy 68
3.2.2 Charging by means of auxiliary heating 69
3.2.3 Store discharge 70
3.3 Systems for heating domestic water 70
3.3.1 Standard system 70
3.3.2 Water heating using the flow-through principle 71
3.3.3 Water heating by means of tank-in-tank store 71
3.3.4 Water heating over external heat exchanger 71
3.3.5 Drain back system 72
3.4 Systems for heating domestic water and space heating 72
3.4.1 Combined store system (store-in-store system) 73
3.4.2 System with buffer store, internal heat exchanger for heat removal and downpipe 73
3.4.3 Stratified store with hot water heating in once-through flow and heating support
3.4.4 Twin store system 73
3.5 Planning and dimensioning 74
3.5.1 Important features for preparing the quotation 74
3.5.2 The dimensioning of systems for domestic water heating 77
3.5.3 Dimensioning of systems for heating domestic water and heating support (central European conditions) 89
3.6 Costs and yields 90
3.6.1 Prices and performance 90
3.6.2 Normalised solar heat costs 94
CHAPTER 4: Installation, commissioning, maintenance and servicing 97
4.1 A brief study of roofing and materials 97
4.1.1 The purpose of the roof 97
4.1.2 Types of roof 97
4.1.3 The components of the roof 98
4.1.4 Pitched roofs 103
4.1.5 Roof installations and mountings 103
4.1.6 Flat roofs 103
4.1.7 Materials 103
4.2 Installation methods and safety 107
4.2.1 UK safety regulations 107
4.2.2 UK personal access and working at heights 108
4.2.3 Working equipment 109
4.2.4 Transport techniques 110
4.2.5 Installation techniques 110
4.3 Installation 111
4.3.1 Delivery of material 111
4.3.2 Setting up the site, preparatory work 111
4.3.3 Collector installation 111
4.3.4 Installation of the solar circuit 126
4.3.5 Store installation 128
4.3.6 Installation of fittings 133
4.3.7 Installation of sensors and controllers 136
4.4 Starting up, maintenance and servicing 136
4.4.1 Flushing out the solar circuit 136
4.4.2 Leak testing 137
4.4.3 Filling with solar liquid 137
4.4.4 Setting the pump and controller 138
4.4.5 Maintenance 138
4.4.6 Detecting and rectifying faults 139
PLANNING AND INSTALLING SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS A guide for installers, architects and engineers
4.5 Information sources for specific countries 146
4.5.1 USA 146
4.5.2 Australia 146
4.5.3 Canada 147
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