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Mar 21, 2018

EBOOK - Machine Drawing (K.L Narayana & P.Kannaiah & K.Venkata Reddy)


EBOOK - Bản vẽ cơ khí (K.L Narayana & P.Kannaiah & K.Venkata Reddy) - 474 Trang.

Drawing, as an art, is the picturisation of the imagination of the scene in its totality by an individual the Artist. It has no standard guidelines and boundaries. Engineering drawing on the other hand is the scientific representation of an object, according to certain national and international standards of practice. It can be understood by all, with the knowledge of basic principles of drawing.

Machine drawing is the indispensable communicating medium employed in industries, to furnish all the information required for the manufacture and assembly of the components of a machine.
Industries are required to follow certain draughting standards as approved by International Organisation for Standards (ISO). When these are followed, drawings prepared by any one can convey the same information to all concerned, irrespective of the firm or even the country. Mechanical engineering students are required to practice the draughting standards in full, so that the students after their training, can adjust very well in industries.
This book on Machine Drawing is written, following the principles of drawing, as recommended by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), in their standards titled “Engineering drawing practice for schools and colleges”; SP:46-1988.
This is the only book on Machine Drawing, incorporating the latest standards published till now and made available to the students. Typical changes brought in the standards, in respect of names of orthographic views are listed below. These eliminate the ambiguity if any that existed earlier. The latest designations as recommended below are used throughout this book.

CONTENTS:

1.1 Graphic Language 1
1.1.1 General 1
1.1.2 Importance of Graphic Language 1
1.1.3 Need for Correct Drawings 1
1.2 Classification of Drawings 2
1.2.1 Machine Drawing 2
1.2.2 Production Drawing 2
1.2.3 Part Drawing 2
1.2.4 Assembly Drawing 3
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Drawing Sheet 10
2.2.1 Sheet Sizes 10
2.2.2 Designation of Sizes 10
2.2.3 Title Block 11
2.2.4 Borders and Frames 11
2.2.5 Centring Marks 12
2.2.6 Metric Reference Graduation 12
2.2.7 Grid Reference System (Zoning) 13
2.2.8 Trimming Marks 13
2.3 Scales 13
2.3.1 Designation 13
2.3.2 Recommended Scales 13
2.3.3 Scale Specification 13
2.4 Lines 14
2.4.1 Thickness of Lines 15
2.4.2 Order of Priority of Coinciding Lines 16
2.4.3 Termination of Leader Lines 17
2.5 Lettering 18
2.5.1 Dimensions 18
2.6 Sections 19
2.6.1 Hatching of Sections 20
2.6.2 Cutting Planes 21
2.6.3 Revolved or Removed Section 23
2.6.4 Half Section 24
2.6.5 Local Section 24
2.6.6 Arrangement of Successive Sections 24
2.7 Conventional Representation 24
2.7.1 Materials 24
2.7.2 Machine Components 24
2.8 Dimensioning 25
2.8.1 General Principles 25
2.8.2 Method of Execution 28
2.8.3 Termination and Origin Indication 30
2.8.4 Methods of Indicating Dimensions 30
2.8.5 Arrangement of Dimensions 32
2.8.6 Special Indications 33
2.9 Standard Abbreviations 37
2.10 Examples 38
3.1 Introduction 43
3.2 Principle of First Angle Projection 43
3.3 Methods of Obtaining Orthographic Views 44
3.3.1 View from the Front 44
3.3.2 View from Above 44
3.3.3 View from the Side 44
3.4 Presentation of Views 45
3.5 Designation and Relative Positions of Views 45
3.6 Position of the Object 46
3.6.1 Hidden Lines 47
3.6.2 Curved Surfaces 47
3.7 Selection of Views 47
3.7.1 One-view Drawings 48
3.7.2 Two-view Drawings 48
3.7.3 Three-view Drawings 49
3.8 Development of Missing Views 50
3.8.1 To Construct the View from the Left, from the Two Given Views 50
3.9 Spacing the Views 50
3.10 Examples 51
4.1 Introduction 64
4.2 Full Section 64
4.3 Half Section 65
4.4 Auxiliary Sections 66
4.5 Examples 67
5.1 Introduction 77
5.2 Screw Thread Nomenclature 77
5.3 Forms of Threads 78
5.3.1 Other Thread Profiles 79
5.4 Thread Series 80
5.5 Thread Designation 81
5.6 Multi-start Threads 81
5.7 Right Hand and Left Hand Threads 81
5.7.1 Coupler-nut 82
5.8 Representation of Threads 82
5.8.1 Representation of Threaded Parts in Assembly 84
5.9 Bolted Joint 85
5.9.1 Methods of Drawing Hexagonal (Bolt Head) Nut 85
5.9.2 Method of Drawing Square (Bolt Head) Nut 87
5.9.3 Hexagonal and Square Headed Bolts 88
5.9.4 Washers 89
5.9.5 Other Forms of Bolts 89
5.9.6 Other Forms of Nuts 91
5.9.7 Cap Screws and Machine Screws 92
5.9.8 Set Screws 93
5.10 Locking Arrangements for Nuts 94
5.10.1 Lock Nut 94
5.10.2 Locking by Split Pin 95
5.10.3 Locking by Castle Nut 95
5.10.4 Wile’s Lock Nut 96
5.10.5 Locking by Set Screw 96
5.10.6 Grooved Nut 96
5.10.7 Locking by Screw 96
5.10.8 Locking by Plate 97
5.10.9 Locking by Spring Washer 97
5.11 Foundation Bolts 98
5.11.1 Eye Foundation Bolt 98
5.11.2 Bent Foundation Bolt 98
5.11.3 Rag Foundation Bolt 98
5.11.4 Lewis Foundation Bolt 99
5.11.5 Cotter Foundation Bolt 100
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