EBOOK - Water and Wastewater Conveyance Pumping Hydraulics Piping and Valves (Frank R. Spellman)


EBOOK - Hệ thống vận chuyển nước & nước thải - Bơm, van và các đường ống thủy lực (Frank R. Spellman) - 430 Trang.

Water and Wastewater Conveyance: Pumping, Hydraulics, Piping, and Valves provides fundamental, basic information on the conveyance of water and wastewater. Written in straight-forward and easy-to-understand language for professionals and non-professionals alike, it provides the techniques to assist water and wastewater operators to better understand basic pump operations and applications, maintenance regimens, and troubleshooting procedures. Addressing a multitude of water quality issues, it provides an introduction to water hydraulics, piping systems, tubes, hoses, and ancillaries as well as valves, and the maintenance requirements of each. It also discusses common operational problems and their appropriate corrective actions. Definitions of key terms and self-examination questions are provided at the end of each chapter.


CONTENTS:

SECTION I Water and Wastewater Sources and Characteristics
Chapter 1Potable Water Sources
Comparative Conveyance
Introduction
Key Terms and Definitions
Hydrologic Cycle
Sources of Water
Surface Water
Advantages and Disadvantages of Surface Water
Surface Water Hydrology
Raw Water Storage
Surface Water Intakes
Surface Water Screens
Surface Water Quality
Groundwater
Groundwater Quality
Groundwater under the Direct Influence of Surface Water
Surface Water Quality and Treatment Requirements
Public Water System Quality Requirements
Chapter Review Questions
References and Recommended Reading
Chapter 2Wastewater Sources and Characteristics
Wastewater Sources
Generation of Wastewater
Classification of Wastewater
Wastewater Characteristics
Physical Characteristics
Chemical Characteristics
Biological Characteristics and Processes
Wastewater Collection Systems
Gravity Collection System
Force Main Collection System
Vacuum System
Pumping Stations
Pumping Station Wet Well Calculations
Chapter Review Questions
SECTION II Pumping
Chapter 3Pumping: Setting the Stage
Introduction
Archimedes’ Screw
Thought-Provoking Question
References and Recommended Reading
Chapter 4Basic Pumping Definitions and Calculations
Introduction
Definitions and Key Terms
Basic Pumping Hydraulics
Weight of Air
Weight of Water
Weight of Water Related to the Weight of Air
Water at Rest
Gauge Pressure
Water in Motion
Pipe Friction
Basic Pumping Calculations
Pumping Rates
Calculating Head Loss
Calculating Head
Calculating Horsepower and Efficiency
Pump Performance Curves
Head–Capacity Curve
Power–Capacity Curve
Efficiency–Capacity Curve
Pumps in Series and Parallel
Considerations for Pumping Wastewater
Types of Pumps Used in Water/Wastewater Treatment
Chapter Review Questions
References and Recommended Reading
Chapter 5Centrifugal Pumps
Introduction
Key Terms and Definitions
Centrifugal Pump Description
Theory
Types of Centrifugal Pumps
Radial-Flow Impeller Pumps
Mixed-Flow Impeller Pumps
Axial-Flow Impeller Pumps (Propeller Pumps)
Centrifugal Pump Characteristics
Advantages and Disadvantages
Water/Wastewater Applications
Chapter Review Questions
References and Recommended Reading
Chapter 6Centrifugal Pump Components
Introduction
Key Terms and Definitions
Casing
Solid Volute Casing
Split Casing Pumps
Impellers
Semi-Open Impellers
Open Impellers
Closed Impellers
Wear Rings
Shafts, Sleeves, and Couplings
Shafting
Sleeves
Couplings
Stuffing Box and Seals
Stuffing Box Packing Assembly
Mechanical Seals
Bearings
Applications and Types of Pump Bearings
Bearing Installation, Maintenance, and Lubrication
Chapter Review Questions
References and Recommended Reading
Chapter 7Centrifugal Pump Operational Procedures
Introduction
Key Terms and Definitions
Centrifugal Pump Installation
Installation Procedure
Startup
Startup Procedure
Normal Operation
Shutdown
Priming
Priming Procedure
Backflushing
Backflushing Procedure
Manual Removal Procedure
Chapter Review Questions
References and Recommended Reading
Chapter 8Centrifugal Pump Maintenance and Troubleshooting Procedures
Introduction
Key Terms and Definitions
Pump and Motor Lubrication
Purpose of Lubrication
Separates Surfaces
Prevents Wear
Cushions Shock
Transfers Heat
Protects against Corrosion
Acts as a Seal
Lubrication Requirements
Lubrication Procedures
Motor Bearing Lubrication
Oil Lubrication of Pump Bearings
Grease Lubrication of Pump Bearings
Packing and Seal Replacement
Packing Procedure
Mechanical Seal Installation Procedure
Pump and Motor Bearing Inspection
Shaft and Coupling Alignment
Alignment Procedure
Removal of Obstructions
Preventive Maintenance
Daily Maintenance
Weekly Maintenance
Monthly Maintenance
Quarterly Maintenance
Semiannual Maintenance
Troubleshooting
The Troubleshooter
Troubleshooting: What Is It?
Goals of Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Process
Troubleshooting Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Fails to Prime or Loses Its Prime
Pump Does Not Discharge
Pump Does Not Deliver Rated Capacity
Pump Does Not Deliver Sufficient Pressure
Pump Starts and Stops Pumping
Pump Overloads Driver or Consumes Excessive Power
Pump Is Noisy or Has Extensive Vibration
Packing Has a Short Life
Stuffing Box Leaks Excessively
Mechanical Seal Has a Short Life
Mechanical Seal Leaks Excessively
Bearings Have a Short Life
Pump Overheats and/or Seizes
Chapter Review Questions
References and Recommended Reading
Chapter 9Centrifugal Pump Modifications
Introduction
Key Terms and Definitions
Submersible Pumps
Applications
Advantages
Disadvantages
Recessed Impeller or Vortex Pumps
Applications
Advantages
Disadvantages
Turbine Pumps
Application
Advantages
Disadvantages
Chapter Review Questions
Chapter 10Positive Displacement Pumps
Introduction
Key Terms and Definitions
Reciprocating Pumps
Diaphragm Pumps
Metering Pumps
Rotary Pumps
Progressive Cavity Pump
Peristaltic Pumps
Chapter Review Questions
References and Recommended Reading
SECTION III Water Hydraulics
Chapter 11Well Systems and Pumps
Well Systems
Well Site Requirements
Types of Wells
Components of a Well
Well Hydraulics
Key Terms and Definitions
Well Evaluation
Well Pumps
Well Pump Water Contamination
Routine Operation and Recordkeeping Requirements
Well Maintenance
Troubleshooting Well Problems
Well Abandonment
Chapter Review Questions
References and Recommended Reading
Chapter 12Water Hydraulics: What Is It?
Setting the Stage
The Stage Is Set
Key Terms and Definitions
Basic Concepts
Stevin’s Law
Units, Conversion Factors, and Formulas Commonly Used Conversion Factors
(Water/Wastewater Operations) Commonly Used Basic Formulas
(Water/Wastewater Operations)
Properties of Water
Density and Specific Gravity
Force and Pressure
Hydrostatic Pressure
Effects of Water under Pressure
Head
Static Head
Friction Head
Velocity Head
Total Dynamic Head (Total System Head)
Pressure and Head
Head and Pressure
Flow and Discharge Rates: Water in Motion
Area and Velocity
Pressure and Velocity
Water Hydraulics Practice Calculations
Velocity of a Fluid through a Pipeline
Pressure–Velocity Relationship
Static Head
Static Suction Head
Static Suction Lift
Static Discharge Head
Friction Head
Velocity Head
Total Head
Conversion of Pressure Head
Horsepower
Specific Speed
Centrifugal Pump Affinity Laws
Net Positive Suction Head
Chapter Review Questions
References and Recommended Reading
Chapter 13Bernoulli’s Theorem
Introduction
Key Terms and Definitions
Conservation of Energy
Energy Head
Piezometric Surface
Head Loss
Hydraulic Grade Line
Bernoulli’s Theorem
Bernoulli’s Equation
Chapter Review Questions
References and Recommended Reading
Chapter 14Friction Head Loss and Wastewater Sediment Control
Introduction
Key Terms and Definitions
Pipe and Open-Channel Flow Basics
Major Head Loss
Calculating Major Head Loss
CFactor
Slope
Minor Head Loss
Wastewater Conveyance and Control of Sediment
Wastewater Sediment Control
Transport of Sewer Solids
Bedload Transport
Suspended Load Transport
Washload Transport
Estimation of Dry-Weather Pollutant Deposition Loading
Methodology for Sewer Sediment Control
Conventional Sewer Cleaning Techniques
Chapter Review Questions
References and Recommended Reading
Chapter 15Basic Piping and Open-Channel Hydraulics
Introduction
Key Terms and Definitions
Piping Networks
Energy Losses in Pipe Networks
Pipes in Series
Pipes in Parallel
Characteristics of Open-Channel Flow
Laminar and Turbulent Flow
Uniform and Varied Flow
Critical Flow
Parameters Used in Open-Channel Flow
Hydraulic Radius
Hydraulic Depth
Slope
Open-Channel Flow Calculations
Open-Channel Flow: The Bottom Line
Chapter Review Questions
References and Recommended Reading
Chapter 16Flow Measurement
Introduction
Key Terms and Definitions
Flow Measurement the Old-Fashioned Way
Basis of Traditional Flow Measurement
Flow Measuring Devices
Differential Pressure Flowmeters
Magnetic Flowmeters
Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Velocity Flowmeters
Positive Displacement Flowmeters
Open-Channel Flow Measurement
Weirs
Flumes
Chapter Review Questions
References and Recommended Reading
SECTION IV Piping
Chapter 17Piping System Basics
Delivering the Lifeblood of Civilization
Key Terms and Definitions
Conveyance Systems
Piping System Joints and Other Fittings Symbols
Joints and Fitting Symbols
Importance of Conveyance Systems
Fluids vs. Liquids
Piping and Equipment Color Identification Code
Piping Coloring Coding and Marking Requirements
Equipment Markings
Piping Markings
Maintaining Fluid Flow in Piping Systems
Scaling
Piping System Maintenance
Piping System Accessories
Piping System Temperature Effects
Piping System Insulation
Piping: The Basics
Pipe Sizes
Types of Piping Systems
Metallic Piping
Piping Materials
Characteristics of Metallic Materials
Metallic Pipe Used in Water/Wastewater Operations
Maintenance Characteristics of Metallic Piping
Joining Metallic Pipe
Nonmetallic Piping
Clay Pipe
Concrete Pipe
Plastic Pipe
Tubing
Tubing Uses
Tubing Materials
Advantages of Tubing
Connecting Tubing
Bending Tubing
Types of Tubing
Typical Tubing Applications
Industrial Hoses
Hose Nomenclature
Factors Governing Hose Selection
Standards, Codes, and Sizes
Nonmetallic Hose
Metallic Hose
Hose Couplings
Hose Maintenance
Pipe and Tube Fittings
Functions of Fittings
Types of Pipe Connections
Tubing Fittings and Connections
Miscellaneous Fittings
Chapter Review Questions
References and Recommended Reading
SECTION V Valves
Chapter 18Flow Control Devices
Definition and Function of Valves
Key Terms and Definitions
Valve Construction
Types of Valves
Ball Valves
Gate Valves
Globe Valves
Needle Valves
Butterfly Valves
Plug Valves
Check Valves
Quick-Opening Valves
Diaphragm Valves
Regulating Valves
Relief Valves
Reducing Valves
Valve Operators
Pneumatic and Hydraulic Valve Operators
Magnetic Valve Operators
Valve Maintenance
Piping System Protective Devices
Applications
Strainers
Filters
Traps
Piping Ancillaries
Monitoring Operating Parameters
Pressure Gauges
Temperature Gauges
Vacuum Breakers
Accumulators
Air Receivers
Heat Exchangers
Chapter Review Questions
References and Recommended Reading
SECTION VI Review Questions
Chapter 19Comprehensive Review Questions
Glossary
Appendix: Answers to Chapter Review Questions
Index

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