EBOOK - Rapid Sensory Profiling Techniques: Applications in New Product Development and Consumer Research - J Delarue, B Lawlor, M Rogeaux


Phân tích cảm quan là một công cụ quan trọng trong phát triển sản phẩm mới. Gần đây đã có sự phát triển đáng kể trong các phương pháp được sử dụng để nắm bắt cảm nhận về sản phẩm. Kỹ thuật hồ sơ cảm giác nhanh cung cấp một đánh giá toàn diện về các phương pháp nhanh chóng để phân tích cảm giác có thể được sử dụng như là phương pháp thay thế hoặc bổ sung cho các phương pháp mô tả thông thường. Phần một xem xét sự phát triển của các phương pháp nắm bắt cảm giác. Phần hai tập trung vào các phương pháp nhanh chóng được sử dụng để nắm bắt nhận thức cảm tính, và phần ba bao gồm các ứng dụng của họ trong phát triển sản phẩm mới và nghiên cứu người tiêu dùng. Cuối cùng, phần bốn khám phá các ứng dụng của các phương pháp nhanh chóng trong việc thử nghiệm các quần thể cụ thể.

  1     The use of rapid sensory methods in R&D and research: an introduction     3
 J. Delarue
  1.1     Introduction and context   3
  1.2     Methodological evolution   8
  1.3     Consequences on sensory activities   14
  1.4     Conclusions   20
  References   22

  2  Alternative methods of sensory testing: advantages and disadvantages     27
 H. Stone
  2.1     Introduction   27
  2.2     The subjects in sensory testing   28
  2.3     Methods in sensory testing   30
  2.4     Further important considerations in sensory testing   37
  2.5     Developing descriptive analysis capability   39
  2.6     Other descriptive methods   48
  2.7     Future trends   49
  2.8     Conclusions   50
  References   50

  3     Measuring sensory perception in relation to consumer behavior     53
 J.E. Hayes
  3.1     Introduction   53
  3.2     Sensation   54
  3.3     Hedonics   58
  3.4     Measuring product use and intake   60
  3.5     Linking sensations, liking, and intake   61
  3.6     Summary   63
  References   63

  4     Insights into measuring emotional response in sensory and consumer research     71
 M. Ng, J. Hort
  4.1     Introduction   71
  4.2     Defining emotion   72
  4.3     The importance of measuring emotions in sensory and
consumer research   73
  4.4     Approaches to measuring emotional response   75
  4.5     Verbal self-report emotion lexicon   77
  4.6     Application of verbal self-report emotion techniques in the
sensory and consumer field   78
  4.7     Relating sensory properties to consumers’ emotional response   84
  4.8     Unresolved issues and topics for future research in verbal
self-report emotion measurement   86
  References   87

  5     Expedited procedures for conceptual profi ling of brands, products and packaging     91
 D.M.H. Thomson
  5.1     Introduction   91
  5.2     Fundamentals of new product success and failure   92
  5.3     Measurement using direct scaling   93
  5.4     Concepts, conceptualisation and conceptual structure   95
  5.5     Emotion profi ling versus conceptual profi ling – some theoretical
considerations   97
  5.6     Conceptual profiling in practice   99
  5.7     Applications and case studies   105
  5.8     Conclusion   116
  Acknowledgements   117
  References   117
    Part Two     Rapid methods for sensory profiling     119

  6     Flash Profi le, its evolution and uses in sensory and consumer science     121
 J. Delarue
  6.1     The method and its origins   121
  6.2     Flash Profi le (FP) methodology through an example: evaluation
of dark chocolates   124
  6.3     Further methodological considerations   132
  6.4     Metrological properties of Flash Profile   134
  6.5     Limitations of Flash Profile   137
  6.6     Evolution in the use of Flash Profile   138
  6.7     Conclusions and future trends   148
  References   148

  7     Free sorting as a sensory profi ling technique for product development     153
 P. Courcoux, E.M. Qannari, P. Faye
  7.1     Introduction   153
  7.2     The free sorting task   154
  7.3     Statistical treatment of free sorting data   160
  7.4     A case study in the automotive industry: understanding the
consumer perception of car body style     170
  7.5     Conclusion   180
  References   181

  8     Free multiple sorting as a sensory profiling technique     187  C. Dehlholm
  8.1     Introduction   187
  8.2     Overview of free multiple sorting (FMS)   187
  8.3     Theoretical framework   188
  8.4     Practical framework and design of experiments   189
  8.5     Implementation and data collection   190
  8.6     Data analysis   191
  8.7     Advantages, disadvantages and applications   194
  8.8     Future trends and further information   195
  References   195

  9     Napping and sorted Napping as a sensory profiling technique     197
 S. Lê, T.M. Lê, M. Cadoret
  9.1     Introduction   197
  9.2     From projective tests to Napping   197
  9.3     From Napping to sorted Napping   206
  9.4     Analysing Napping and sorted Napping data using the
R statistical software   210
  9.5     Conclusion   212
  References   213

  10     Polarized sensory positioning (PSP) as a sensory profi ling technique     215
 E. Teillet
  10.1     Introduction   215
  10.2     Polarized sensory positioning (PSP) methodologies   216
  10.3     Data analyses   217
  10.4     PSP and the taste of water   219
  10.5     Discussion of the choice of the poles   223
  10.6     Conclusion   224
  References   224

  11     Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions with consumers in practice: experimental considerations and impact on outcome     227
 G. Ares, S.R. Jaeger
  11.1     Introduction   227
  11.2     Implementation of check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions   229
  11.3     Analysis of data from CATA questions   233
  11.4     Case study: application of CATA questions for sensory
characterization of plain yoghurt     235
  11.5     Pros, cons and opportunities of the application of CATA questions     240
  11.6     Conclusions   242
  Acknowledgments   242
  References   242

  12     Open-ended questions in sensory testing practice     247
 B. Piqueras-Fiszman
  12.1     Introduction   247
  12.2     General pros and cons of open-ended questions   249
  12.3     When open-ended questions are appropriate   251
  12.4     Processing the answers: from raw to clean data   252
  12.5     Analysing the data: getting valuable outcomes from different
applications   255
  12.6     Future trends and social media   261
  12.7     Conclusions   264
  References   265

  13     Temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) as a sensory profi ling  technique     269
 N. Pineau, P. Schilch
  13.1     Introduction   269
  13.2     Overview of temporal dominance of sensations (TDS)   270
  13.3     TDS experiment and panel training   272
  13.4     Data analysis: representation of the sequence   279
  13.5     Data analysis: representation of the product space   284
  13.6     Data analysis: comparison between products   287
  13.7     Panel performance   291
  13.8     Some applications   295
  13.9     Future trends in TDS   299
  13.10     Conclusion   302
  References   304

  14     Ideal profi ling as a sensory profiling technique     307
 T. Worch, P.H. Punter
  14.1     Introduction   307
  14.2     Principle and properties of the Ideal Profile Method (IPM)   309
  14.3     IPM, a tool for product development and product optimization   313
  14.4     Additional valuable properties of the IPM   316
  14.5     Illustration of the Ideal Profile Analysis (IPA)   319
  14.6     Conclusions   328
  References   330
    Part Three     Applications in new product development
and consumer research     333

  15     Adoption and use of Flash Profi ling in daily new product development: a testimonial     335
 C. Petit, E. Vanzeveren
  15.1     Introduction   335
  15.2     Flash Profi le as a starting point     335
  15.3     Flash Profi le as a reference methodology     338
  15.4     Limitations and perspectives in the use of Flash Profile   341
  15.5     Conclusion   343
  References   343

  16     Improving team tasting in the food industry     345
 M. Rogeaux
  16.1     Introduction: the ever-increasing importance of new tasting
methods within the project teams     345
  16.2     Precise analysis of the concrete situations where evaluation
by team tasting is appropriate     346
  16.3     Analysis of opportunities and constraints linked to project team
evaluation   347
  16.4     An approach adapted to Danone’s needs but integrated with the
limits of the team tasting     348
  16.5     Implementation examples (common in R&D field)   357
  16.6     Analysis and prospects   360
  References   361

  17     Alternative methods of sensory testing: working with chefs, culinary
professionals and brew masters     363
 M.B. Frøst, D. Giacalone, K.K. Rasmussen
  17.1     Introduction   363
  17.2     Background: fast descriptive methods and persons with no
formal sensory training in sensory tests     363
  17.3     Data analysis of projective descriptive methods   365
  17.4     Case study 1: brewers and novices assessing beer   367
  17.5     Results and discussion of partial napping of beer   368
  17.6     Case study 2: exploring the world of spice blends and pastes
with chefs and other food experts     371
  17.7     Results and discussion of spice blends and pastes   373
  17.8     General discussion and recommendations   377
  References   379
  Appendix: Projective mapping versus napping (see also Chapter 9)     382

  18     Sensory testing with flavourists: challenges and solutions     383
 B. Veinand
  18.1     Introduction   383
  18.2     Roles and responsibilities   384
  18.3     Different ways of working   386
  18.4     Strategies to complement both types of expertise   390
  18.5     Future trends   397
  References   398

  19     Projective Flash Profi le from experts to consumers: a way to reveal
fragrance language     401
 S. Ballay, E. Loescher, G. Gazano
  19.1   Introduction: an industrial approach to the assessment of fragrances     401
  19.2     Flash Profi le of fragrances: perfumers vs consumers     401
  19.3     An extension to Flash Profi le of fragrances with consumers:
beyond sensory description   410
  19.4     Discussion and conclusion   423
  References   424

  20     Use of rapid sensory methods in the automotive industry     427
 D. Blumenthal, N. Herbeth
  20.1     Introduction   427
  20.2     Example 1: gearbox sensations and comfort   430
  20.3     Example 2: role and lateral support perception   435
  20.4     Example 3: idle noises of diesel engines   444
  20.5     Conclusion: pros and cons of rapid sensory methods in the
automotive context   450
  References   451

  21     Testing consumer insight using mobile devices: a case study of a
sensory consumer journey conducted with the help of mobile research    455
 D. Lutsch, R. Möslein, M. Strack, S. Kunze
  21.1     Mobile research: status quo   455
  21.2     Mobile sensory research: a new mobile research method   456
  21.3     Case study: a sensory consumer journey conducted with the
help of mobile research     459
  21.4     Summary and discussion   466
  21.5     Conclusion   468
  References   469
    Part Four     Applications in sensory testing with specifi c
populations and methodological consequences     471

  22     Sensory testing in new product development: working with children     473
 S. Nicklaus
  22.1     Introduction   473
  22.2     Reasons for studying sensory aspects in children   474
  22.3     How to organize sensory evaluation testing with children   475
  22.4     Application of different sensory evaluation techniques to
children of different ages     476
  22.5     Conclusion   480
  22.6     Future trends   480
  22.7     Sources of further information   481
  References   481

  23     Sensory testing in new product development: working with
older people     485
 I. Maitre, R. Symoneaux, C. Sulmont-Rossé
  23.1     Introduction   485
  23.2     The elderly market: a challenge between needs and pleasure   485
  23.3     The heterogeneity of the elderly   487
  23.4     Impact of age and dependence on performance at a sensory task:
key fi ndings on scale use in a monadic sequential presentation     491
  23.5     Running sensory descriptive analysis with an elderly panel:
recommendations   497
  23.6     Conclusion and future trends   503
  Acknowledgements   504
  References   505

  24     Empathy and Experiment™: dealing with the algebra of the mind
to understand and change food habits     509
 H.R. Moskowitz, M. Reisner, L. Ettinger Lieberman, B. Batalvi, M. Beg
  24.1     Introduction   509
  24.2     The origins of the study   509
  24.3     Background: Golden Rice – the positives   510
  24.4     Background: Golden Rice – the negatives   512
  24.5     Empathy and Experiment™: the two halves of the approach   512
  24.6     The value of experimentation and implementation of Golden
Rice evaluations among Pakistanis     516
  24.7     Summary of the elements and process of the experiment   518
  24.8     The material of the interview and analysis of structured
experimental design data   521
  24.9     Explicating the results – the total panel versus gender   525
  24.10     Culture-mind-set segments   528
  24.11     Summary and future trends   535
  Acknowledgment   536
  References   536

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