Nov 21, 2016

EBOOK - Solar Heating Systems for Houses A Design Handbook for Solar Combisystems (Werner Weiss)

Since the beginning of the 1980s, the rate of growth in the use of solar collectors for domestic hot water preparation has shown that solar heating systems are both mature  and technically  reliable. However, for several years, solar thermal systems seemed to be restricted to this application.
When the first systems for combined domestic hot water preparation  and space heating, called solar  combisystems, appeared  on the  market, complex and individually designed systems were the rule.
The combination of thermally well insulated buildings and low-temperature heat supply systems offered a wealth of new possibilities for solar space heating systems with short-term storage. In addition, the growing environmental awareness and subsidies in some countries supported an increase in the market share of this system type in many European countries.
From 1990 onwards the industry offered new, simpler and cheaper system technologies, but basic scientific knowledge was laclung in certain areas and on some methods. The designs were mainly the result of field experience  and had not been carefully optimized. A first international survey in 1997 revealed more than 20 different designs that did not simply reflect local climate and practical conditions. Collaborative work in analysing and  optimizing combisystems was seen as a proactive action that could favour high-quality systems that would be appropriate for a more global market.

However, there were no common definitions of terms or standard test procedures for this type  of system. This  meant that  it was difficult to  determine a meaningful performance rating, and even more difficult to compare the systems.
While a great  effort was made in Task 14 of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC) of  the International  Energy Agency  (IEA) - Advunced Active Soluv Enevgy Systems - to assess and compare the performance of different designs of domestic hot water systems, in 1997 there was no available method for finding the ‘best’ solution for a combisystem in a given situation.
International  co-operation  was therefore  needed to analyse and  review more designs and ideas than  one  country alone could cover. It was felt that an IEA activity was the best way to deal with solar combisystems in  a scientific and  co- ordinated  manner. Since it was also considered that combisystems needed further development in terms of performance and standardization, the IEA SHC launched Task 26 ‘Solar Combisystems’ in 1998.

Werner Weirs
1  Solar combisystems and the global energy challenge  1
1.1  Towards a sustainable energy future  1
demand in Europe  3
heating systems  5
1.3  Solar combisystems - a promising solution  6
References  9
Werner Weiss
1.2  The contribution  of solar thermal  energy to the overall heat
Collector area in operation in the year 2000 in Europe
Current and medium-term energy supply from solar
2  The solar resource
Wolfgang Streicker
2.1  Solar radiation  and ambient temperature
2.2  Availability of climatic data
2.2.1  Test Reference Years
2.2.2  Weather data generators
Internet sites for climatic data
3  Heat demand of buildings
Wolfgang Stveicker
3.1  Thermal quality of buildings
3.3  Space heating demand
3.4  Hot water consumption
The reference buildings ofTask 26
UlvikeJordan ad Klaus Kjen
3.4.1  DHW load profiles on a 1 minute timescale
3.4.2  DHW load profiles on a 6 minute timescale
3.4.3 DHW load profiles on an hourly timescale
3.4.4 Final remarks
4  Generic solar combisystems  38
Basic features of solar combisystems - a short summary
4.1.2  Stratification in water storage devices  39
The generic solar combisystems considered
Jean-Marc Sutev
4.1.1  Comparison of combisystems with solar water  heaters  38
Classification of solar combisystems  41
Jean-Mavc Sutev
Jean-Mavc Siiter
Technical description of the generic systems  48
Thomas Letz andjean-Mavc Sutev
4.4.1  General remarks  48
4.4.3  System #1: basic direct solar floor  (France)  51
4.4.4  System #2:  heat exchanger between collector loop and
4.4.2  The symbols used  49
space heating loop  (Denmark)  53
4.4.5  System #3a: advanced direct solar floor  (France)  55
(Denmark and the Netherlands)  57
with drainback  capability (the Netherlands)
4.4.6  System #4: DHW tank as a space heating storage device
4.4.7  System #5: DHW tank as space heating storage device
4.4.8  System #6: heat storage in DHW tank and in collector
drainback tank (the Netherlands)  61
4.4.9  System #7: space heating store with a single load-side heat
exchanger for DHW (Finland)  62
4.4.10 System #8: space heating store with double load-side  heat
exchanger for DHW (Switzerland)  64
4.4.11 System #9: small DHW tank in space heating tank
(Switzerland, Austria and Norway)  66
4.4.12 System #lo: advanced small DHW tank in space
heating tank (Switzerland)  69
4.4.13 System #11: space heating store with DHW load-side heat
exchanger(s) and external auxiliary boiler  (Finland and
Sweden)  71
heat  exchanger(s) and external auxiliary boiler (advanced
4.4.14 System #12: space heating store with DHW load-side
version)  (Sweden)  73
4.4.15 System #13: two stores (series) (Austria)
4.4.16 System #14: two stores (parallel) (Austria)
4.4.17 System #15: two stratifiers in a space heating storage
tank with an external load-side heat exchanger for DHW
(Germany)  79
4.4.18 System #16: conical stratifer in space heating store with
4.4.19 System #17: tank open to the atmosphere with three heat
load-side heat exchanger for DHW (Germany)  81
exchangers (Germany)  83
4.4.20 System #18: finned-tube load-side DHW heat exchanger
in stratifier (Germany)
4.4.21 System #19:  centralized heat production, distributed heat
load, stratified storage (Austria)
4.4.22 Large systems for seasonal heat  storage
5  Building-related  aspects of solar combisystems
5.1  Space requirements
Peter Kovdcs and Werner Weiss
5.1.1  Is a low space requirement always desirable?
5.1.2  How to achieve a low space requirement?
5.1.3 Space requirements of the 20 generic combisystems
Architectural integration of collector arrays
Irene Bergmann, Michaela MeiqJohn Rekstad and Werner Weiss
5.2.1 Roof integration
5.2.2  FaGade integration
5.2.3  Aesthetic aspects
5.2.4  Project planning and boiler room
6  Performance of solar combisystems
Ulvike]ordan, Klaus Kjen and Wolfgang Streicher
6.1  Reference conditions
6.1.1  Boiler parameters
6.1.2  Collector parameters
6.1.3 Pipe parameters
6.1.4 Storage parameters
6.1.6  Combined total energy consumption
6.2  Fractional energy savings
6.2.1  Target functions
6.2.2 Penalty functions
6.3  Combisystems characterization
Thomas Letz
6.3.1  FSC method
6.3.2  Cost analysis
Electricity consumption of system components
7  Durability  and reliability of solar combisystems
Jean-Marc Suter and Peter Kovdcs
7.1  General  considerations
7.1.1 Durable materials
7.1.2 Reliable components and systems
7.1.3  Quantitative assessment of system reliability
Peter Kovdcs
7.2  Stagnation behaviour
Jean-Marc Suter
7.2.1  Stagnation in solar combisystems
7.2.2  Stagnation in pressurized collector loops with
expansion vessels
Robert Hausner
7.2.3  Drainback technology
Huib Vissev and Markus Peter
8  Dimensioning of solar combisystems
Chris Bales, Wol&ang Streichev, Thomas Letz and Bengt Pevers
8.1  Dimensioning guidelines
Wokatg Streichev, Chris Bales and Thomas Letz
8.1.1  Collector slope and orientation
8.1.2  Collector and store size
8.1.3  Climate and load
8.1.4 The boiler  and the annual energy balance
8.1.5  Design of the heat store
8.1.6  Design  of the collector  circuit
Chris Bales, Thomas Letz and Bengt Perers
8.2.1 The Task 26 nomogram
8.2.2 The Task 26 design tool
8.3  Simulation of system performance
Chris Bales
8.3.1 TRNSY S simulations
8.3.2  Simulation ofTask 26 systems
Numerical models for solar combisystems
Chris Bales and Bengt Perers
8.4.2  Parameter  identification  and verification
Simulation programs
8.2  Planning and design tools
Models used in Task 26
9  Built examples
9.1  Single-family house, Wildon, Austria
9.3  Single-family house, Koege, Denmark
9.4  Multi-family house, Evessen, Germany
9.6  Single-family house, Colbe, Germany
The Gneis-Moos Housing Estate, Salzburg, Austria
Multi-family house with office, Frankfurt/Main, Germany
9.10 Single-family house, Falun, Sweden
9.1 1 Single-family house, Orebro, Sweden
9.12 Single-family house, Dombresson, Switzerland
9.13 Single-family house, Buus, Switzerland
9.14 Single-family house, Oslo, Norway
9.15 Klosterenga Ecological Dwellings: multi-family house,
Factory-made systems, Dordrecht, the Netherlands
Single-family house, Saint Baldoph, France
Single-family house, Saint Alban Leysse, France
Oslo, Norway
10  Testing and certification of solar combisystems
Harald  Driick  and Huib Visser
10.1 European standards
10.1.1 Classification of solar heating systems
10.1.2 Current status of the European standards
10.2.1 Collectors
10.2.2 Testing of hot water stores
10.3 Testing of solar heating systems
10.3.1 The CSTG test method
10.3.2 The DST method
10.3.3 The CTSS method
10.3.4 The DC and the CCT methods
10.2 Testing of solar thermal components
10.4  Certification of solar heating systems
Appendix 1 Reference library
Compiled by Peter Kovdcs
Al.l Contents of the reference library sorted by author
Appendix 2 Vocabulary
Jean-Marc Sutev, UlrikeJordan and Dagmarjaehriig
A2.1 Terms and definitions  296
A2.2 Symbols and abbreviations  30 1
A2.3 Terms and definitions specific to Chapters  6 and 8  302
References  303
Appendix 3 IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme  3 04
Wernev Weirs
A3.1 Completed Tasks  305
A3.2 Completed Working Groups  305
A3.3 Current Tasks  305
A3.4 Current Working Group  306
Appendix 4 Task 26
Werner Weiss
A4.1 Participants
A4.2 Industry participants



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