EBOOK - Biomechanics - Principles and Practices (Donald R. Peterson & Joseph D. Bronzino)


Biomechanics is deeply rooted throughout scientific history and has been influenced by the research work of early mathematicians, engineers, physicists, biologists, and physicians.
Not one of these disciplines can claim the sole responsibility for maturing biomechanics to its current state; rather, it has been a conglomeration and integration of these disciplines, involving the application of mathematics, physical principles, and engineering methodologies that have been responsible for its advancement.
Several examinations exist that offer a historical perspective on biomechanics in dedicated chapters within a variety of biomechanics textbooks.
For this reason, a historical perspective is not presented within this brief introduction, and it is left to the reader to discover the material within one of these textbooks. As an example, Fung (1993) provides a reasonably detailed synopsis of those who were influential to the progress of biomechanical understanding.
A review of this material and similar material from other authors commonly shows that biomechanics has occupied the thoughts of some of the most conscientious minds involved in a variety of the sciences.

The study of biomechanics, or biological mechanics, employs the principles of mechanics, which is a branch of the physical sciences that investigates the effects of energy and forces on matter or material systems. Biomechanics often embraces a broad range of subject matter that may include aspects of classical mechanics, material science, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics in an attempt to model and predict the mechanical behaviors of living systems.
The contemporary approach to solving problems in biomechanics typically follows a sequence of fundamental steps that are commonly defined as observation, experimentation, theorization, validation, and application. These steps are the basis of the engineering methodologies, and their significance is emphasized within a formal education of the engineering sciences, especially biomedical engineering. Each step is considered to be equally important, and an iterative relationship between steps, with mathematics serving as the common link, is often necessary to converge on a practical understanding of the system in question. An engineering education that ignores these interrelated fundamentals may produce engineers who are ignorant of the ways in which real-world phenomena differ from mathematical models.
Since most biomechanical systems are inherently complex and cannot be adequately defined using only theory and mathematics, biomechanics should be considered as a discipline whose progress relies heavily on research and the careful implementation of this approach.
When a precise solution is not obtainable, utilizing this approach will assist in identifying critical physical phenomena and obtaining approximate solutions that may provide a deeper understanding as well as improvements to the investigative strategy. Not surprisingly, the need to identify critical phenomena and obtain approximate solutions seems to be more significant in biomedical engineering than in any other engineering discipline, which is primarily due to the complex biological processes involved.

1  Mechanics of Hard Tissue ...............................................................................1-1
J. Lawrence Katz, Anil Misra, Orestes Marangos, Qiang Ye, and Paulette Spencer
2  Musculoskeletal Soft-Tissue Mechanics ........................................................ 2-1
Richard L. Lieber, Samuel R. Ward, and Thomas J. Burkholder
3  Joint-Articulating Surface Motion .................................................................3-1
Kenton R. Kaufman and Kai-Nan An
4  Joint Lubrication ............................................................................................4-1
Michael J. Furey
5  Analysis of Gait .............................................................................................. 5-1
Roy B. Davis III, Sylvia Õunpuu, and Peter A. DeLuca
6  Mechanics of Head/Neck ...............................................................................6-1
Albert I. King and David C. Viano
7  Biomechanics of Chest and Abdomen Impact ...............................................7-1
David C. Viano and Albert I. King
8  Cardiac Biomechanics ....................................................................................8-1
Andrew D. McCulloch and Roy C. P. Kerckhoffs
9  Heart Valve Dynamics ................................................................................... 9-1
Choon Hwai Yap, Erin Spinner, Muralidhar Padala, and Ajit P. Yoganathan
10  Arterial Macrocirculatory Hemodynamics ..................................................10-1
Baruch B. Lieber
11  Mechanics of Blood Vessels ..........................................................................11-1
Thomas R. Canfield and Philip B. Dobrin
12  The Venous System.

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