Mar 28, 2017

EBOOK - Hydraulic Fracturing Operations - Handbook of Environmental Management Practices (Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff)

EBOOK - Hoạt động khai thác mỏ bằng phương pháp thủy lực cắt phá - Sổ tay hướng dẫn thực hành quản lý môi trường - Tác giả: Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff (794 Trang).

Hydraulic fracturing, commonly referred to as fracking, is a technique used by the oil and gas industry to mine hydrocarbons trapped deep beneath the Earth’s surface. The principles underlying the technology are not new.
Fracking was first applied at the commercial level in the United States as early as 1947, and over the decades it has been applied in various countries including Canada, the United Kingdom, and Russia. The principle author worked with engineering teams up to 40 years ago in evaluating ways to improve oil and gas recovery from this practice. By and large fracking was not an economically competitive process and had limited applications until the last decade.

Several factors altered the importance of this technology; among them significant technological innovations in drilling practices with impressive high tech tools for exploration, well construction and integrity, and gas recovery along with the discoveries of massive natural gas reserves in the United States and other parts of the world. These factors have catapulted the application of the technology to what is best described as the gold rush of the 21stcentury, with exploration and natural gas plays proceeding at a pace that seemingly is unrivaled by any recent historical industrial endeavor. This activity has invoked widespread criticism from concerned citizens and environmental groups in almost every nation across the globe.


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