EBOOK - Các Nghiên cứu ứng dụng và Thuật toán - Tác giả: Wayne L. Winston (1348 Trang).
Operations research(often referred to as management science) is simply a scientific approach to decision making that seeks to best design and operate a system, usually under conditions requiring the allocation of scarce resources.
By a system,we mean an organization of interdependent components that work together to accomplish the goal of the system. For example, Ford Motor Company is a system whose goal consists of maximizing the profit that can be earned by producing quality vehicles.
The term operations researchwas coined during World War II when British military leaders asked scientists and engineers to analyze several military problems such as the deployment of radar and the management of convoy, bombing, antisubmarine, and mining operations.
The scientific approach to decision making usually involves the use of one or more mathematical models.A mathematical model is a mathematical representation of an actual situation that may be used to make better decisions or simply to understand the actual situation better. The following example should clarify many of the key terms used to describe mathematical models.