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Jan 22, 2018

EBOOK - Solar energy at Urban Scale (Benoit Beckers)


Since ancient times, despite the noise, the overcrowding, the fire hazards, and the epidemics, to live in the center of a large city has been considered a privilege.
Kings, architects, and philosophers have imagined the ideal city as the city that would address the most private of activities, public life, and large parties. Foremost, an ideal city is the city that would overcome the vagaries of the weather – wind, cold, heat, and light – and would allow living to the rhythm of civilized society.
Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Chang’an, Baghdad, Paris, London, Manhattan, or Brasilia were the greatest accomplishments of their time regarding the quality of life in common.
However, at the turn of the 20th Century, the simultaneous occurrences of elevators, automobiles, and cheap energy – oil and electricity – sharply, and simultaneously, increased the number of floors of downtown buildings and the radius of urban sprawl. In the center, the old buildings were left in the perpetual shade of skyscrapers, and many thousands of hectares of residential areas and roads covered the former farmland.


Chapter 1. The Odyssey of Remote Sensing from Space:
Half a Century of Satellites for Earth Observations ............... 1
Théo PIRARD
1.1. To improve the weather forecasts ....................... 2
1.2. Technological challenges to spy and to map from orbit .......... 3
1.3. Toward global environmental observers in space ............. 6
1.4. The digital revolution of the ICTs for GIS applications .......... 9
1.5. Suggested reading ................................ 12
Chapter 2. Territorial and Urban Measurements ................ 13
Marius PAULESCU and Viorel BADESCU
2.1. Solar radiation at the Earth’s surface ..................... 13
2.2. Instrumentation ................................. 17
2.2.1. Fundamentals of solar irradiance measurements ........... 18
2.2.2. Solar radiometers .............................. 20
2.2.2.1. Pyrheliometers ............................. 20
2.2.2.2. Pyranometers .............................. 20
2.2.2.3. World radiometric reference ..................... 23
2.2.2.4. Radiometers calibration and uncertainty .............. 23
2.2.2.5. Classification of pyranometers ................... 25
2.2.3. Sunshine duration measurements .................... 25
2.2.3.1. Burning card method ......................... 25
2.2.3.2. Pyranometric method ......................... 27
2.2.4. Data quality assessment .......................... 28
2.2.5. Data availability ............................... 29
2.3. Radiation measurements in urban environment............... 29
2.3.1. Description scales.............................. 29
2.3.2. Urban site description ........................... 30
2.3.3. WMO recommendations.......................... 31
2.3.3.1. Scope of measurements and measurement site selection .... 31
2.3.3.2. Measurements and corrections.................... 32
2.4. Conclusions.................................... 33
2.5. Acknowledgments ................................ 33
2.6. Bibliography ................................... 33
Chapter 3. Sky Luminance Models ......................... 37
Matej KOBAV and Grega BIZJAK
3.1. CIE standard overcast sky (1955) ...................... 39
3.2. CIE standard clear sky (1996) ........................ 39
3.3. CIE standard general sky ............................ 40
3.4. All-weather model for sky luminance distribution – Perez ........ 45
3.5. ASRC–CIE model ................................ 48
3.6. Igawa all-sky model ............................... 49
3.7. Absolute luminance ............................... 52
3.8. Visualization ................................... 54
3.9. Conclusion .................................... 54
3.10. Bibliography .................................. 55
Chapter 4. Satellite Images Applied to Surface Solar
Radiation Estimation .................................. 57
Bella ESPINAR and Philippe BLANC
4.1. The solar resource ................................ 57
4.2. Ground measurements of the solar resource................. 60
4.2.1. Ground instruments............................. 60
4.2.2. The spatial variability of solar radiation ................ 62
4.3. Satellite images for SSI estimation ...................... 64
4.4. Two different approaches for satellite-based SSI estimation ....... 68
4.4.1. SSI clear-sky models ............................ 68
4.4.2. The inverse approach............................ 69
4.4.2.1. The calculation of the cloud coverage index ........... 69
4.4.2.2. The calculation of the GHI ...................... 70
4.4.3. The direct approach ............................ 72
4.5. Accuracy of satellite-based SSI estimations................. 74
4.6. Use of satellite observations for high-resolution solar
radiation estimation .................................. 78
Table of Contents vii
4.6.1. High-resolution solar atlas of Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur..... 79
4.6.1.1. Model for the variation of the optical path len
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