EBOOK - Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery (S.L Dixon & C.A Hall)


EBOOK - Cơ học chất lỏng và nhiệt động lực học của động cơ đẩy (S.L Dixon & C.A Hall) - 481 Trang.

This book was originally conceived as a text for students in their final year reading for an honours degree in engineering that included turbomachinery as a main subject. It was also found to be a useful support for students embarking on post-graduate courses at masters level. The book was written for engineers rather than for mathematicians, although some knowledge of mathematics will prove most
useful.

Also, it is assumed from the start that readers will have completed preliminary courses in fluid mechanics. The stress is placed on the actual physics of the flows and the use of specialised mathematical methods is kept to a minimum.
Compared to the fifth edition this new edition has had a large number of changes made in style of presentation, new ideas and clarity of explanation. More emphasis is given to the effects of compressibility to match the advances made in the use of higher flow and blade speeds in turbomachinery.
In Chapter 1, following the definition of a turbomachine, the fundamental laws of flow continuity, the energy and entropy equations are introduced aswell as the all-important Euler work equation, which applies to all turbomachines. In Chapter 2 the main emphasis is given to the application of the “similarity laws,”to dimensional analysis of all types of turbomachine and their performance characterisics.
The important ideas of specific speed and specific diameter emerge from these concepts and their application is illustrated in the Cordier Diagram, which shows how to select the machine that will give the highest efficiency for a given duty. Did you realise that thedental drillis actually a turbomachine that fits in very well with these laws? Also, in this chapter the basics of cavitation within pumps and hydraulic turbines are examined.

CHAPTER 1 Introduction: Basic Principles................................................................. 1

1.1Definition of a Turbomachine ...................................................................... 1
1.2Coordinate System..................................................................................... 2
1.3The Fundamental Laws............................................................................... 4
1.4The Equation of Continuity......................................................................... 5
1.5The First Law of Thermodynamics ............................................................... 5
1.6The Momentum Equation............................................................................ 7
1.7The Second Law of Thermodynamics—Entropy ............................................. 9
1.8Bernoulli’s Equation................................................................................. 11
1.9Compressible Flow Relations..................................................................... 12
1.10Definitions of Efficiency ........................................................................... 15
1.11Small Stage or Polytropic Efficiency ........................................................... 18
1.12The Inherent Unsteadiness of the Flow within Turbomachines ......................... 24
References.............................................................................................. 26
Problems ................................................................................................ 26

CHAPTER 2 Dimensional Analysis: Similitude ................................................ 29

2.1Dimensional Analysis and Performance Laws ............................................... 29
2.2Incompressible Fluid Analysis.................................................................... 30
2.3Performance Characteristics for Low Speed Machines .................................... 32
2.4Compressible Fluid Analysis...................................................................... 33
2.5Performance Characteristics for High Speed Machines................................... 37
2.6Specific Speed and Specific Diameter.......................................................... 40
2.7Cavitation............................................................................................... 47
References.............................................................................................. 49
Problems ................................................................................................ 50

CHAPTER 3 Two-Dimensional Cascades...................................................... 53

3.1Introduction............................................................................................ 53
3.2Cascade Geometry ................................................................................... 56
3.3Cascade Flow Characteristics ..................................................................... 59
3.4Analysis of Cascade Forces ....................................................................... 64
3.5Compressor Cascade Performance............................................................... 68
3.6Turbine Cascades..................................................................................... 78
References.............................................................................................. 92
Problems ................................................................................................ 94

CHAPTER 4 Axial-Flow Turbines: Mean-Line Analysis and design..... 97

4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 97
4.2Velocity Diagrams of the Axial-Turbine Stage .............................................. 99
4.3Turbine Stage Design Parameters .............................................................. 100
4.4Thermodynamics of the Axial-Turbine Stage.............................................. 101
4.5Repeating Stage Turbines ........................................................................ 103
4.6Stage Losses and Efficiency ..................................................................... 105
4.7Preliminary Axial Turbine Design............................................................. 107
4.8Styles of Turbine.................................................................................... 109
4.9Effect of Reaction on Efficiency ............................................................... 113
4.10 Diffusion within Blade Rows ................................................................... 115
4.11 The Efficiency Correlation of Smith (1965) ................................................ 118
4.12 Design Point Efficiency of a Turbine Stage ................................................ 121
4.13 Stresses in Turbine Rotor Blades .............................................................. 125
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