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Mar 13, 2018

EBOOK - Food process engineering - An introduction (Alan Friis & Jørgen Risum)


EBOOK - Giới thiệu về công nghệ chế biến thực phẩm (Alan Friis & Jørgen Risum).

Producing foods of high quality is an obvious objective for food engineers. Hence a methodology for objective determination of the relationships between the characteristics  of food products and the involved manufacturing processes (including storage and transportation) is needed. The term ‘characteristic’ pertaining to food products is much more operational than the term ‘quality’ when
dealing with process design and validation.

Characteristics can be determined objectively (quantitatively or qualitatively), however, definition of quality is subjective. Two persons who like a specific product might like it for different reasons. Hence each individual define his or her own preferred characteristic to determine the quality of the product.

CONTENTS.

Introduction ........................................................................................................ 1
Food Process Design and Quality................................................................... 1
A strategy for Process Design of a Food Production Line.............................. 1
About the teaching material........................................................................... 2
Flow sheets ........................................................................................................ 4
Process description ......................................................................................... 4
Flow sheets ..................................................................................................... 4
Mass and energy balances................................................................................. 6
Mass Balances ................................................................................................ 6
Material balance with accumulation ........................................................ 10
Energy balances ........................................................................................... 11
Continues systems .................................................................................... 11
Composition of food products .......................................................................... 16
Physical properties of food products................................................................ 18
Density .......................................................................................................... 18
Specific heat capacity ................................................................................... 19
Heat conductivity.......................................................................................... 20
Thermal diffusivity ........................................................................................ 22
Viscosity (Newtonian liquids) ...................................................................... 22
The influence of temperature on viscosity ................................................ 23
Other characterizing parameters ................................................................. 23
Rheology of liquid foods ............................................................................... 24
Non-Newtonian fluids ............................................................................... 25
Time dependency...................................................................................... 25
Time independent liquids ......................................................................... 26
Shear-thinning fluids ................................................................................. 28
Shear-thickening fluids ............................................................................. 31
Fluids exhibiting an apparent yield stress ............................................... 31
The role of elasticity and time effects ....................................................... 32
Temperature dependency ......................................................................... 32
Rheology solid and semi-solid food products............................................... 32
Fluid mechanics ............................................................................................... 33
Newtonian fluids .......................................................................................... 33
Laminar flow ............................................................................................. 35
Turbulent flow ........................................................................................... 37
Non-Newtonian fluids................................................................................... 38
Laminar flow ............................................................................................. 40
Turbulent flow ........................................................................................... 43
Flow through pipe fittings ............................................................................ 43
Heat transfer..................................................................................................... 45
Steady state conduction heat transfer ......................................................... 46
Steady state convection heat transfer .......................................................... 49
Natural convection .................................................................................... 51
Forced convection ..................................................................................... 52
Unsteady state heat transfer ........................................................................ 56
Cooking and condensation ........................................................................... 56
Kondenserende vanddamp ....................................................................... 56
Kogning ..................................................................................................... 56
Heat transfer by radiation ............................................................................ 57
Black body radiation ................................................................................. 57
Heating and cooling ......................................................................................... 58
Effects on processing ....................................................................................... 59
References ........................................................................................................ 60
List of symbols ................................................................................................. 61
Appendix 1. Usefull calculations and conversions .......................................... 63
Appendix 2. Units conversions ........................................................................ 64
Appendix 3. Density equations........................................................................ 65
Appendix 4. Heat capacity equations.............................................................. 66
Appendix 5. Heat conductivity equations ....................................................... 67
Beregninger af ikke homogene systemer ..................................................... 67
Appendix 6. Measuring viscosity and flow curves .......................................... 69
Appendix 7. Moody diagram............................................................................ 70
Appendix 8. Data for water, air + foods .......................................................... 71
Appendix 9. Equations for natural convection ................................................ 72
Appendix 10. Equations for forced convection ................................................ 73
Free falling droplets .................................................................................. 73
Drying ........................................................................................................ 73
Agitated tanks........................................................................................... 73

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