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Mar 14, 2018

EBOOK - Handbook of Food Science and Technology 1 (Romain Jeantet & Các TG)


EBOOK - Handbook of Food Science and Technology 1 - Food Alteration and Food Quality (Romain Jeantet & Các TG) - Sổ tay Khoa học và Công nghệ Thực phẩm 1 - Thay đổi Thực phẩm và Chất lượng Thực phẩm - 266 Trang.

The first concern of primitive people was to find food in their immediate environment to meet their physiological needs to survive; with no knowledge of either their requirements or the properties of food products, whether they were of plant or animal origin, these food choices were based on very empirical observations. The development of agriculture and livestock farming gradually gave people greater control in procuring food compared to the randomness of gathering, hunting and fishing.

However, the supply of agricultural and livestock products has long been highly irregular for reasons of climate, diseases or simply the seasonal nature of certain products. Due to this irregularity, and in order to meet the needs of people located far from production areas, man has always been in search of ways to preserve food, thereby creating the possibility of varying the time and place
of consumption of agricultural products.

CONTENTS.

Part 1. Water and Other Food Constituents.................  1

Chapter 1. Water....................................  3
Pierre SCHUCK
1.1. Structure and state of water  ..........................  3
1.2. Properties of water................................  7
1.2.1. Water activity (aw) .............................  8
1.2.2. Glass transition ...............................  19
1.2.3. Phase diagram ................................  25

Chapter 2. Other Food Constituents......................  27
Thomas CROGUENNEC
2.1. Carbohydrates  ..................................  27
2.1.1. Structure of carbohydrates  ........................  28
2.1.2. Carbohydrates in solution .........................  30
2.2. Proteins  ......................................  36
2.2.1. Structure of proteins  ............................  36
2.2.2. Solubility of proteins ............................  38
2.3. Lipids  .......................................  41
2.3.1. Composition of the lipid fraction .....................  41
2.3.2. Thermal properties of lipids ........................  47
2.4. Vitamins ......................................  51

Part 2. Food Modifying Agents and Mechanisms.............  53

Chapter 3. Microbial Spoilage...........................   55
Florence BARONand Michel GAUTIER
3.1. Microbial profile of food ............................  55
3.1.1. Origin of microorganisms .........................  55
3.1.2. Factors influencing the growth of microorganisms ..........  66
3.2. Food spoilage ...................................  78
3.2.1. Changes in texture and structure .....................  79
3.2.2. Changes in flavor ..............................  80
3.3. Sanitary risks ...................................  82
3.3.1. Foodborne disease outbreak ........................  82
3.3.2. Main pathogens and toxin producers  ..................  86

Chapter 4. Lipid Oxidation.............................  99
Thomas CROGUENNEC
4.1. Lipid substrates  .................................  100
4.2. Lipid oxidation mechanisms ..........................  100
4.2.1. Lipid autoxidation  .............................  101
4.2.2. Lipid oxidation by singlet oxygen ....................  106
4.3. Main compounds derived from lipid oxidation ...............  108
4.4. Factors affecting lipid oxidation  .......................  110
4.4.1. Oxygen content ...............................  111
4.4.2. Catalysts of lipid oxidation  ........................  112
4.4.3. Inhibitors of lipid oxidation ........................  116
4.4.4. Physical-chemical factors .........................  119
4.5. Evaluation of susceptibility to oxidation and
the level of oxidation .................................  122
4.5.1. Measuring the consumption of oxidation substrates  .........  124
4.5.2. Determination of the peroxide value ...................  124
4.5.3. Measurement of peroxide decomposition products ..........  126
4.6. Control and prevention of lipid oxidation ..................  126
4.6.1. Stabilization using physical means .....................  128
4.6.2. Formulation  ..................................  129

Chapter 5. Non-Enzymatic Browning......................   133
Thomas CROGUENNEC
5.1. Substrates .....................................  134
5.2. Mechanism of non-enzymatic browning ...................  135
5.2.1. Condensation  ................................  136
5.2.2. Amadori or Heyns rearrangement  ....................  137
5.2.3. Degradation of ketosamines ........................  138
5.2.4. Polymerization reactions ......................... 144
5.3. Factors influencing the Maillard reaction ..................  145
5.3.1. Substrates  ..................................  145
5.3.2. Physical-chemical conditions .......................  147
5.3.3. Presence of activators and inhibitors  ..................  149
5.4. Consequences of non-enzymatic browning .................  149
5.4.1. Sensory consequences ...........................  150
5.4.2. Functional consequences  .........................  150
5.4.3. Nutritional consequences .........................  151
5.5. Evaluation of non-enzymatic browning  ...................  152
5.6. Control and prevention of non-enzymatic browning ............  153
5.6.1. Removal of substrates  ...........................  154
5.6.2. Physical-chemical factors .........................  155
5.6.3. Formulation (addition of inhibitors) ...................  155
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