EBOOK - Introduction to Operation Research (Hillier & Lieberman)


EBOOK - Giới thiệu về hoạt động nghiên cứu khoa học 7th (Hillier & Lieberman) - 1237 Trang.

It now is 33 years since the first edition of this book was published in 1967. We have been humbled by having had both the privilege and the responsibility of introducing so many students around the world to our field over such a long span of time. With each new edition, we have worked toward the goal of meeting the changing needs of new generations of students by helping to define the modern approach to teaching the current status of operations research effectively at the introductory level. Over 33 years, much has changed in both the field and the pedagogical needs of the students being introduced to the field.

These changes have been reflected in the substantial revisions of successive editions of this book. We believe that this is true for the current 7th edition as well. The enthusiastic response to our first six editions has been most gratifying. It was a particular pleasure to have the 6th edition receive honorable mention for the 1995 INFORMS Lanchester Prize (the prize awarded for the year’s most outstanding Englishlanguage publication of any kind in the field of operations research), including receiving the following citation.
“This is the latest edition of the textbook that has introduced approximately one-half million students to the methods and models of Operations Research. While adding material on a variety of new topics, the sixth edition maintains the high standard of clarity and expositional excellence for which the authors have long been known. In honoring this work, the prize committee noted the enormous cumulative impact that the Hillier-Lieberman text has had on the development of our field, not only in the United States but also around the world through its many foreign-language editions.” As we enter a new millennium, the particular challenge for this new edition was to revise a book with deep roots in the 20th century so thoroughly that it would become fully suited for the 21st century. We made a special effort to meet this challenge, especially in regard to the software and pedagogy in the book.

CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1

1.1 The Origins of Operations Research 1
1.2 The Nature of Operations Research 2
1.3 The Impact of Operations Research 3
1.4 Algorithms and OR Courseware 5
Problems 6

CHAPTER 2 Overview of the Operations Research Modeling Approach 7

2.1 Defining the Problem and Gathering Data 7
2.2 Formulating a Mathematical Model 10
2.3 Deriving Solutions from the Model 14
2.4 Testing the Model 16
2.5 Preparing to Apply the Model 18
2.6 Implementation 20
2.7 Conclusions 21
Selected References 22
Problems 22

CHAPTER 3 Introduction to Linear Programming 24

3.1 Prototype Example 25
3.2 The Linear Programming Model 31
3.3 Assumptions of Linear Programming 36
3.4 Additional Examples 44
3.5 Some Case Studies 61
3.6 Displaying and Solving Linear Programming Models on a Spreadsheet 67
3.7 Formulating Very Large Linear Programming Models 73
3.8 Conclusions 79
Appendix 3.1 The LINGO Modeling Language 79
Selected References 89
Learning Aids for This Chapter in Your OR Courseware 90
Problems 90
Case 3.1 Auto Assembly 103
Case 3.2 Cutting Cafeteria Costs 104
Case 3.3 Staffing a Call Center 106

CHAPTER 4 Solving Linear Programming Problems: The Simplex Method 109

4.1 The Essence of the Simplex Method 109
4.2 Setting Up the Simplex Method 114
4.3 The Algebra of the Simplex Method 118
4.4 The Simplex Method in Tabular Form 123
4.5 Tie Breaking in the Simplex Method 128
4.6 Adapting to Other Model Forms 132
4.7 Postoptimality Analysis 152
4.8 Computer Implementation 160
4.9 The Interior-Point Approach to Solving Linear Programming Problems 163
4.10 Conclusions 168
Appendix 4.1 An Introduction to Using LINDO 169
Selected References 171
Learning Aids for This Chapter in Your OR Courseware 172
Problems 172
Case 4.1 Fabrics and Fall Fashions 182
Case 4.2 New Frontiers 185
Case 4.3 Assigning Students to Schools 188

CHAPTER 5 The Theory of the Simplex Method 190

5.1 Foundations of the Simplex Method 190
5.2 The Revised Simplex Method 202
5.3 A Fundamental Insight 212
5.4 Conclusions 220
Selected References 220
Learning Aids for This Chapter in Your OR Courseware 221
Problems 221

CHAPTER 6 Duality Theory and Sensitivity Analysis 230

6.1 The Essence of Duality Theory 231
6.2 Economic Interpretation of Duality 239
6.3 Primal-Dual Relationships 242
6.4 Adapting to Other Primal Forms 247
6.5 The Role of Duality Theory in Sensitivity Analysis 252
6.6 The Essence of Sensitivity Analysis 254
xiv TABLE OF CONTENTS
6.7 Applying Sensitivity Analysis 262
6.8 Conclusions 284
Selected References 284
Learning Aids for This Chapter in Your OR Courseware 285
Problems 285
Case 6.1 Controlling Air Pollution 302
Case 6.2 Farm Management 304
Case 6.3 Assigning Students to Schools (Revisited) 307
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