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Mar 22, 2018

EBOOK - Offshore wind energy generation (Olimpo Anaya-Lara)


EBOOK - Offshore Wind Energy Generation - Control Protection and Integration to Electrical Systems - Năng lượng gió ngoài khơi - Kiểm soát bảo vệ và tích hợp với các hệ thống điện (Olimpo Anaya-Lara) - 307 Trang.

The motivation for this book is the rapid growth of offshore wind energy systems and the implications this has on power system operation, control and protection. Developments on wind turbine technology and power electronic converters along with new control approaches have enabled offshore wind energy systems performance to be improved. The authors identified the need for a book that covers fundamental and up-to-date issues on this dynamic topic suitable for beginners or advanced readership.

The contents offer information on technology trends for offshore wind energy systems, detailed modelling of variable-speed wind generator technologies and easy-to-use grid integration examples. The textbook is useful to final year undergraduate and postgraduate students, and also practising engineers and scientists in the wind industry with research interest in aspects of wind generator technology and electrical systems for grid integration.

CONTENTS:

1 Offshore Wind Energy Systems 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Typical Subsystems 1
1.3 Wind Turbine Technology 4
1.3.1 Basics 4
1.3.2 Architectures 6
1.3.3 Offshore Wind Turbine Technology Status 7
1.4 Offshore Transmission Networks 8
1.5 Impact on Power System Operation 9
1.5.1 Power System Dynamics and Stability 10
1.5.2 Reactive Power and Voltage Support 10
1.5.3 Frequency Support 11
1.5.4 Wind Turbine Inertial Response 11
1.6 Grid Code Regulations for the Connection of Wind Generation 12
Acknowledgements 13
References 14
2 DFIG Wind Turbine 15
2.1 Introduction 15
2.1.1 Induction Generator (IG) 15
2.1.2 Back-to-Back Converter 16
2.1.3 Gearbox 16
2.1.4 Crowbar Protection 16
2.1.5 Turbine Transformer 17
2.2 DFIG Architecture and Mathematical Modelling 17
2.2.1 IG in theabcReference Frame 17
2.2.2 IG in the dq0 Reference Frame 23
2.2.3 Mechanical System 27
vi Contents
2.2.4 Crowbar Protection 29
2.2.5 Modelling of the DFIG B2B Power Converter 30
2.2.6 Average Modelling of Power Electronic Converters 33
2.2.7 The dc Circuit 35
2.3 Control of the DFIG WT 36
2.3.1 PI Control of Rotor Speed 36
2.3.2 PI Control of DFIG Reactive Power 39
2.3.3 PI Control of Rotor Currents 41
2.3.4 PI Control of dc Voltage 42
2.3.5 PI Control of Grid-side Converter Currents 45
2.4 DFIG Dynamic Performance Assessment 47
2.4.1 Three-phase Fault 47
2.4.2 Symmetrical Voltage Dips 51
2.4.3 Asymmetrical Faults 53
2.4.4 Single-Phase-to-Ground Fault 54
2.4.5 Phase-to-Phase Fault 55
2.4.6 Torque Behaviour under Symmetrical Faults 56
2.4.7 Torque Behaviour under Asymmetrical Faults 58
2.4.8 Effects of Faults in the Reactive Power Consumption of the IG 59
2.5 Fault Ride-Through Capabilities and Grid Code Compliance 60
2.5.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Crowbar Protection 60
2.5.2 Effects of DFIG Variables over Its Fault Ride-Through Capabilities 61
2.6 Enhanced Control Strategies to Improve DFIG Fault
Ride-Through Capabilities 62
2.6.1 The Two Degrees of Freedom Internal Model Control (IMC) 62
2.6.2 IMC Controller of the Rotor Speed 65
2.6.3 IMC Controller of the Rotor Currents 66
2.6.4 IMC Controller of the dc Voltage 67
2.6.5 IMC Controller of the Grid-Side Converter Currents 69
2.6.6 DFIG IMC Controllers Tuning for Attaining Robust Control 70
2.6.7 The Robust Stability Theorem 70
3 Fully-Rated Converter Wind Turbine (FRC-WT) 73
3.1 Synchronous Machine Fundamentals 73
3.1.1 Synchronous Generator Construction 73
3.1.2 The Air-Gap Magnetic Field of the Synchronous Generator 74
3.2 Synchronous Generator Modelling in thedqFrame 79
3.2.1 Steady-State Operation 81
3.2.2 Synchronous Generator with Damper Windings 82
3.3 Control of Large Synchronous Generators 85
3.3.1 Excitation Control 86
3.3.2 Prime Mover Control 87
3.4 Fully-Rated Converter Wind Turbines 88
3.5 FRC-WT with Synchronous Generator 89
3.5.1 Permanent Magnets Synchronous Generator 90
3.5.2 FRC-WT Based on Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator 92
3.5.3 Generator-Side Converter Control 93
3.5.4 Modelling of the dc Link 96
3.5.5 Network-Side Converter Control 98
3.6 FRC-WT with Squirrel-Cage Induction Generator 100
3.6.1 Control of the FRC-IG Wind Turbine 100
3.7 FRC-WT Power System Damper 105
3.7.1 Power System Oscillations Damping Controller 105
3.7.2 Influence of Wind Generation on Network Damping 107
3.7.3 Influence of FRC-WT Damping Controller on
4 Offshore Wind Farm Electrical Systems 113
4.1 Typical Components 113
4.2 Wind Turbines for Offshore – General Aspects 113
4.3 Electrical Collectors 115
4.3.1 Wind Farm Clusters 118
4.4 Offshore Transmission 118
4.4.1 HVAC Transmission 118
4.4.2 HVDC Transmission 120
4.4.3 CSC-HVDC Transmission 122
4.4.4 VSC-HVDC Transmission 128
4.4.5 Multi-Terminal VSC-HVDC Networks 140
4.5 Offshore Substations 141
4.6 Reactive Power Compensation Equipment 144
4.6.1 Static Var Compensator (SVC) 144
4.6.2 Static Compensator (STATCOM) 147
4.7 Subsea Cables 150
4.7.1 Ac Subsea Cables 150
4.7.2 Dc Subsea Cables 150
4.7.3 Modelling of Underground and Subsea Cables 150
5 Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Farms – Case Studies 155
5.1 Background 155
5.2 Offshore Wind Farm Connection Using Point-to-Point VSC-HVDC Transmission 156
5.3 Offshore Wind Farm Connection Using HVAC Transmission 159
5.4 Offshore Wind Farm Connected Using Parallel HVAC/VSC-HVDC Transmission
5.5 Offshore Wind Farms Connected Using a Multi-Terminal
VSC-HVDC Network 164
5.6 Multi-Terminal VSC-HVDC for Connection of Inter-Regional Power Systems 168
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