EBOOK - Quantifying Matter (States of Matter) - Joseph A. Angelo

Humankind’s global civilization relies upon a family of advanced technologies that allow people to perform clever manipulations of matter and energy in a variety of interesting ways. Contemporary matter manipulations hold out the promise of a golden era for humankind an era in which most people are free from the threat of such natural perils as thirst, starvation, and disease.

But matter manipulations, if performed unwisely or improperly on a large scale, can also have an apocalyptic impact. History is filled with stories of ancient societies that collapsed because local material resources were overexploited or unwisely used. In the extreme, any similar follies by people on a global scale during this century could imperil not only the human species but all life on Earth.
Despite the importance of intelligent stewardship of Earth’s resources, many people lack sufficient appreciation for how matter influences their daily lives. The overarching goal of States of Matter is to explain the important role matter plays throughout the entire domain of nature both here on Earth and everywhere in the universe.
The comprehensive multivolume set is designed to raise and answer intriguing questions and to help readers understand matter in all its interesting states and forms
from common to exotic, from abundant to scarce, from here on Earth to the fringes of the observable universe.


Exploring the Nature of Matter  1
The Atomic Nature of Matter  1
Carbon’s Intriguing Paradox  4
The Difference between Pure Substances and Mixtures  7
Scientific Units  10
Ordinary Matter versus Dark Matter  12
Hunting Dark Matter with the Hubble Space Telescope  13
States of Matter  15
2The Origin of Matter  18
The Big Bang  18
Mass–Energy  23
How Hydrogen and Helium Formed in the Ancient Inferno  27
Fundamental Forces in Nature  29
People Are Made of Stardust  31
3The Search for Substance  38
Materials and the Rise of Man  38
Metal of Cyprus  44
Early Views of Matter: Earth, Air, Water, and Fire  44
Alchemy  47
Steam and the Industrial Revolution  52
4 Quantifying Matter during the Scientific Revolution  55
An Overview of the Scientific Revolution  55
The Scientific Method  56
The Mechanics of the Universe  59
Blind Alleys: Phlogiston and Caloric Theory  60
Concepts of Density, Pressure, and Temperature  64
Otto von Guericke’s Amazing Experiment  65
Elasticity of Matter  66
Rankine—The Other Absolute Temperature  70
Lavoisier and the Rise of Modern Chemistry  70
Dalton Revives Interest in the Atomic Nature of Matter  72
Avogadro’s Bold Hypothesis  72
5 Understanding Matter’s Electromagnetic Properties  74
Magnetism and the Mysteries of the Lodestone  74
Discovering Electricity: From Ancient Greece to Colonial America  79
Count Alessandro Volta  82
Electricity and Living Things  83
Quantifying the Electric Nature of Matter  85
Michael Faraday’s Revolution  86
Maxwell’s Electromagnetic Theory  87
Sir Joseph John (J. J.) Thomson Discovers the Electron  88
The Electromagnetic Spectrum  89
6 Periodic Table of the Elements  92
New Chemical Elements Keep Showing Up  92
Searching for a Periodic Law in Chemistry  96
Mendeleev’s Periodic Law  98
Modern Periodic Table of Elements  101
Making Ununtrium and Ununpentium  103
Chemical Bonds  105
7 Discovering the Radioactive Nature of Matter  107
X-rays Lead the Way  107
X-rays and Materials Science  110
How X-rays Help Unlock Matter’s Secrets  112
X-rays and Quantum Mechanics  114
The Discovery of Radioactivity  115
Marie Curie  116
Measuring the Radioactivity of Matter  118
Matter Consists of Isotopes  122
Tracer Principle  122
Aston’s Mass Spectrometer  124
8Exploring the Atomic Nucleus  126
Ernest Rutherford—Father of the Atomic Nucleus  126
The Bohr Model of the Atom  129
Chadwick Discovers the Neutron  131
Segrè and the First Artificial Element  133
The Discovery of Nuclear Fission  134
Nuclear Fission  135
Dawn of the Nuclear Age  137
9Contemporary View of Matter  142
Intriguing World of Quantum Mechanics  142
Taking a Really Close-up Look at Matter  143
Photoelectric Effect  144
Rise of Quantum Mechanics  145
Accelerators  147
Lawrence’s Amazing Laboratories  148
The Nuclear Particle Zoo  154
The Standard Model  158
Manipulating Matter Atom by Atom  161
Integrated Circuit (IC)  162
Thinking Small  166
National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI)  167
Nanomedicine  168
Very Special Microscopes  169
Buckyballs  171
The Promise of Nanotechnology  173
Conclusion  177
Appendix: Periodic Table of the Elements  180
Elements Listed by Atomic Number  181
Chronology  184
Glossary  195
Further Resources  213
Index  221


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