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Apr 11, 2018

EBOOK - Understanding Wind Power Technology - Theory Deployment and Optimisation (Alois Schaffarczyk)


EBOOK - Tìm hiểu về công nghệ điện gió - Phát triển và tối ưu (Alois Schaffarczyk) - 484 Trang.

This text begins with a brief history and then supplements this with an explanation of the importance of wind energy in the international energy policy debate. Following chapters then introduce the aerodynamic and structural aspects of blade design. Then the focus shifts to the flow of energy and loads through the wind turbine, through the powertrain and also the tower-foundation system, respectively.

Next, the electrical components such as the generator and power electronics are discussed, including control systems and automation. Following is an explanation of how wind turbines are integrated into the electricity grid, despite the highly fluctuating nature of both this energy source and the grid load; this particular topic is especially relevant for Germany’s transition to renewable energy. The final topic covers one of the youngest and most promising aspects of wind energy: offshore technology.

CONTENTS:

1 the history of Wind energy  1
Jos Beurskens
1.1  Introduction  1
1.2  The First Windmills: 600–1890  2
1.2.1  Technical Development of the First Horizontal Windmills  5
1.3  Generation of Electricity using Wind Farms: Wind Turbines 1890–1930  10
1.4  The First Phase of Innovation: 1930–1960  16
1.5  The Second Phase of Innovation and Mass Production: 1960 to Today  25
1.5.1  The State-Supported Development of Large Wind Turbines  28
1.5.2  The Development of Smaller Wind Turbines  36
1.5.3  Wind Farms, Offshore and Grid Connection  38
1.5.4  International Grids  41
1.5.5  To Summarise  43
References  43
2 the international development of Wind energy  45
Klaus Rave
2.1  The Modern Energy Debate  45
2.2  The Reinvention of the Energy Market  48
2.3  The Importance of the Power Grid  50
2.4  The New Value-added Chain  53
2.5  International Perspectives  55
2.6  Expansion into Selected Countries  58
2.7  The Role of the EU  59
2.8  International Institutions and Organisations  61
2.8.1  Scenarios  64
2.9  Global Wind Energy Outlook 2012– The Global View into the Future  65
2.9.1  Development of the Market in Selected Countries  65
2.10  Conclusion  71
References  71
3  Wind resources, site assessment and ecology  73
Hermann van Radecke
3.1  Introduction  73
3.2 Wind Resources  73
3.2.1 Global Wind Systems and Ground Roughness  73
3.2.2 Topography and Roughness Length  75
3.2.3 Roughness Classes  76
3.2.4 Contour Lines and Obstacles  79
3.2.5 Wind Resources with WAsP, WindPRO, Windfarmer  81
3.2.6  Correlating Wind Potential with Mesoscale Models and Reanalysis Data  84
3.2.7 Wind in the Wind Farm  90
3.2.8 Wind Frequency Distribution  95
3.2.9 Site Classification and Annual Energy Production  96
3.2.10  Reference Yield and Duration of Increased Subsidy  99
3.3  Acoustics  101
3.3.1 The dB(A) Unit  101
3.3.2 Sources of Noise  103
3.3.3 Propagation through the Air  105
3.3.4 Imission Site and Benchmarks  105
3.3.5 Frequency Analysis, Tone Adjustment and Impulse Adjustment  106
3.3.6 Methods of Noise Reduction  106
3.3.7 Regulations for Minimum Distances  107
3.4  Shadow  107
3.5  Turbulence  109
3.5.1 Turbulence from Surrounding Environment  110
3.5.2 Turbulence Attributed to Turbines  111
3.6 Two Comprehensive Software Tools for Planning Wind Farms  111
3.7 Technical Guidelines, FGWGuidelines and IEC Standards  112
3.8  Environmental  Influences  Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz
(Federal Imission Control Act) and Approval Process  113
3.8.1 German Imission Protection Law (BImSchG)  114
3.8.2 Approval Process  115
3.8.3 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)  115
3.8.4 Specific Aspects of the Process  118
3.8.5  Acceptance  121
3.8.6 Monitoring and Clarifying Plant-Specific Data  121
3.9 Example Problems  121
3.10  Solutions to the Problems  123
4 aerodynamics and Blade design  126
Alois Schaffarczyk
4.1  Summary  126
4.2  Horizontal Plants  126
4.2.1  General  126
4.2.2  Basic Aerodynamic Terminology  127
4.3  Integral Momentum Theory  130
4.3.1  Momentum Theory of Wind Turbines: the Betz Limiting Value  130
4.3.2  Changes in Air Density with Temperature and Altitude  132
4.3.3  Influence of the Finite Blade Number  133
4.3.4 Swirl Losses and Local Optimisation of the
Blades According to Glauert  134
4.3.5  Losses Due to Profile Drag  136
4.4  Momentum Theory of the Blade Elements  137
4.4.1  The Formulation  137
4.4.2  Example of an Implementation: WT-Perf  139
4.4.3  Optimisation and Design Rules for Blades  139
4.4.4 Extension of the Blade Element Method: The Differential Formulation  140
4.4.5  Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)  141
4.4.6  Summary: Horizontal Plants  142
4.5  Vertical Plants  142
4.5.1  General  142
4.5.2  Aerodynamics of H Rotors  144
4.5.3  Aeroelastics of Vertical Axis Rotors  149
4.5.4  A 50 kW Rotor as an Example  150
4.5.5 Design Rules for Small Wind Turbines According to H-Darrieus Type A  150
4.5.6  Summary: Vertical Rotors  151
4.6  Wind-Driven Vehicles with a Rotor  151
4.6.1  Introduction  151
4.6.2  On the Theory of Wind-Driven Vehicles  152
4.6.3  Numerical Example  153
4.6.4  The Kiel Design Method  153
4.6.5  Evaluation  154
4.6.6  Completed Vehicles  155
4.6.7  Summary: Wind Vehicles  156
4.7  Exercises  157
References  158
5 rotor Blades  162
Lothar Dannenberg
5.1  Introduction  162
5.2  Loads on Rotor Blades  163
5.2.1  Types of Loads  163
5.2.2  Fundamentals of the Strength Calculations  165
5.2.3  Cross-Sectional Values of Rotor Blades  167
5.2.4  Stresses and Deformations  172
5.2.5  Section Forces in the Rotor Blade  176
5.2.6  Bending and Inclination  178
5.2.7  Results According to Beam Theory  179
5.3  Vibrations and Buckling  180
5.3.1  Vibrations  180
5.3.2  Buckling and Stability Calculations  183
5.4  Finite Element Calculations  184
5.4.1  Stress Calculations  184
5.4.2  FEMBuckling Calculations  185
5.4.3  FEM Vibration Calculations  186
5.5  Fibre-Reinforced Plastics  187
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