EBOOK - Refrigeration and air conditioning (Kharahpur)

EBOOK - Hệ thống lạnh và điều hòa không khí (Kharahpur) - 808 Trang.

Refrigeration may be defined as the process of achieving and maintaining a temperature below that of the surroundings, the aim being to cool some product or space to the required temperature. One of the most important applications of refrigeration has been the preservation of perishable food products by storing them at low temperatures.

Refrigeration systems are also used extensively for providing thermal comfort to human beings by means of air conditioning. Air Conditioning refers to the treatment of air so as to simultaneously control its temperature, moisture content, cleanliness, odour and circulation, as required by occupants, a process, or products in the space. The subject of refrigeration and air conditioning has evolved out of human need for food and comfort, and its history dates back to centuries. The history of refrigeration is very interesting since every aspect of it, the availability of refrigerants, the prime moversand the developments in compressors and the methods of refrigeration all are a partof it. The French scientist Roger ThÝvenot has written an excellent book on the history of refrigeration throughout the world. Here we present only a Version 1 ME, IIT Kharagpur  2 brief history of the subject with special mention of the pioneers in the field and some important events.


Lesson 1 History Of Refrigeration  [Natural Refrigeration ~ Artificial Refrigeration ] 7
Lesson 2 History Of Refrigeration - Development Of Refrigerants And Compressors [ Refrigerant development - a brief history ~ Compressordevelopment - a brief history ] 26
Lesson 3 Applications Of Refrigeration & Air Conditioning  [ Application of refrigeration in Food processing, preservation and distribution ~ Applications of refrigeration in chemical and process industries ~ Special applications of refrigeration ~ Application of air conditioning ] 44
Lesson 4 Review of fundamental principles - Thermodynamics : Part I [ Definitions ~ Thermodynamic properties ~ Fundamental laws of Thermodynamics ]64
Lesson 5 Review of fundamental principles - Thermodynamics : Part II [ Thermodynamic relations ~ Evaluation of thermodynamic properties ~ Thermodynamic processes ] 78
Lesson 6 Review of fundamentals: Fluid flow [ Fluid flow ] 93
Lesson 7 Review of fundamentals: Heat and Mass transfer [ Heat transfer ~ Fundamentals of Mass transfer ~ Analogy between heat, mass and momentum transfer ~ Multimode heat transfer ~ Heat exchangers ] 104
Lesson 8 Methods of producing Low Temperatures [ Sensible cooling by cold medium ~ Endothermic mixing of substances ~ Phase change processes ~ Expansion of Liquids ~ Expansion of gases ~ Thermoelectric Refrigeration ~ Adiabatic demagnetization ]124
Lesson 9 Air cycle refrigeration systems [ Air Standard Cycle analysis ~ Basic concepts ~ Reversed Carnot cycle employing a gas ~ Ideal reverse Brayton cycle ~ Aircraft cooling systems ]138
Lesson 10 Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems [ Comparison between gas cycles and vapor cycles ~ Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems ~ The Carnot refrigeration cycle ~ Standard Vapour Compression Refrigeration System (VCRS) ~ Analysis of standard vapour compression refrigeration system ]153
Lesson 11 Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems: Performance Aspects And Cycle Modifications [ Performance of SSS cycle ~ Modifications to SSS cycle ~ Effect of superheat on system COP ~ Actual VCRS systems ~ Complete vapour compression refrigeration systems ]171
Lesson 12 Multi-Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems [ Flash gas removal using flash tank ~ Intercooling in multi-stage compression ~ Multi-stage system with flash gas removal and intercooling ~ Use of flash tank for flash gas removal ~ Use of flash tank for intercooling only ]193
Lesson 13 Multi-Evaporator And Cascade Systems [ Individual evaporators and a single compressor with a pressure-reducing valve ~ Multi-evaporator system with multi-compression, intercooling and flash gas removal ~ Multi-evaporator system with individual compressors and multiple expansion valves ~ Limitations of multi-stage systems ~ Cascade Systems ]213
Lesson 14 Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Systems  [ Maximum COP of ideal absorption refrigeration system ~ Properties of refrigerant-absorbent mixtures ~ Basic Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System ~ Refrigerant-absorbent combinations for VARS ]238
Lesson 15 Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Systems Based On Water Lithium Bromide Pair [ Properties of water-lithium bromide solutions ~ Steady flow analysis of Water-Lithium Bromide Systems ~ Practical problems in waterlithium bromide systems ~ Commercial systems ~ Heat sources for water -lithium bromide systems ~ Minimum heat source temperatures for LiBr-Water systems ~ Capacity control ]258
Lesson 16 Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Systems Based On Ammonia Water Pair [ Properties of ammonia-water solutions ~ Basic Steady-Flow Processes with binary mixtures ]279
Lesson 17 Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Systems Based On Ammonia Water Pair [ Working principle ~ Principle of rectification column and dephlegmator
~ Steady-flow analysis of the system ~ Pumpless vapour absorption refrigeration systems ~ Solar energy driven sorption systems ~ Comparison between compression and absorption refrigeration systems ]301
Lesson 18 Refrigeration System Components: Compressors [ Compressors ~ Reciprocating compressors ]317
Lesson 19 Performance Of Reciprocating Compressors [ Ideal compressor with clearance ~ Actual compression process ~ Capacity control of reciprocating compressors ~ Compressor lubrication ]337




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