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Jun 14, 2018

EBOOK - J & P Transformer Book 13th Edition (Martin Heathcote)


EBOOK - Máy biến áp J & P 13th Edition (Martin Heathcote) - 989 Trang.

The design and manufacture of transformers is not cutting edge technology, and compared with many fi elds of engineering, progress is slow and change is gradual. The question might therefore be asked as to what is the need for a new and revised edition of The J & P Transformer Book. It is also true that in many branches of the industry the book has become well known and widely respected, and many owners will not consider replacing their trusted old edition.

Indeed, many transformer engineers swear by copies handed down to them from older colleagues. After all, transformers are expected to have long lives so that many that are currently in service could have been designed 20 or 30 years ago using practices that have long been considered out of date. True, but the industry does change and the Twelfth edition certainly did appear at a time of great change. Electricity supply privatisation in the UK was beginning to have a signifi cant impact on procurement strategy; the single European market was becoming well established, and its effects strongly felt.
There have been many mergers in the industry; many well known and well respected manufacturers in Europe and the USA have disappeared. The result is that the industry has become truly an international one, national standards are disappearing and international standards, in particular those of the IEC, are becoming dominant.

CONTENTS:

1  Transformer theory  1
1.1 Introduction  1
1.2  The ideal transformer: voltage ratio  2
1.3  Leakage reactance: transformer impedance  4
1.4  Losses in core and windings  5
1.5 Rated quantities  9
1.6 Regulation  11
2  Design fundamentals  14
2.1  Types of transformers  14
2.2  Phase relationships: phasor groups  17
2.3  Volts per turn and fl ux density  22
2.4 Tappings  24
2.5 Impedance  25
2.6  Multi-winding transformers including tertiary windings  27
2.7 Zero-sequence impedance  33
2.8 Double secondary transformers  34
2.9  General case of three-winding transformer  36
3  Basic materials  41
3.1 Dielectrics  41
3.2 Core steel  42
3.3 Winding conductors  54
3.4 Insulation  60
3.5 Transformer oil  75
4  Transformer construction  105
4.1 Core construction  106
4.2 Transformer windings  119
4.3 Dispositions of windings  143
4.4 Impulse strength  149
4.5 Thermal considerations  158
4.6  Tappings and tapchangers  169
4.7  Winding forces and performance under short-circuit  230
4.8  Tanks and ancillary equipment  250
4.9  Processing and dry out  285
5  Testing of transformers  319
5.1  Testing and quality assurance during manufacture   319
5.2 Final testing  321
5.3  Possible additional testing for important transformers  384
5.4  Transport, installation and commissioning  392
6  Operation and maintenance  406
6.1  Design and layout of transformer installations  406
6.2 Neutral earthing  415
6.3 Transformer noise  430
6.4 Parallel operation  454
6.5  Transient phenomena occurring in transformers  495
6.6 Transformer protection  530
6.7 Maintenance in service  588
6.8  Operation under abnormal conditions  622
6.9  The infl uence of transformer connections upon third-harmonic voltages and currents  646
7  Special features of transformers for particular purposes  670
7.1 Generator transformers  670
7.2 Other power station transformers  682
7.3  Transmission transformers and autotransformers  688
7.4  Transformers for HVDC converters  689
7.5  Phase shifting transformers and quadrature boosters  701
7.6 System transformers  710
7.7 Interconnected star earthing transformers  714
7.8 Distribution transformers  718
7.9  Scott- and Le Blanc-connected transformers  743
7.10 Rectifi er transformers  750
7.11  AC arc furnace transformers  752
7.12 Traction transformers  757
7.13  Generator neutral earthing transformers  764
7.14  Transformers for electrostatic precipitators  769
7.15 Reactors  771
8  Transformer enquiries and tenders  782
8.1 Transformer enquiries  782
8.2 Assessment of tenders  807
8.3  Economics of ownership and operation  812

APPENDICES

1  Transformer equivalent circuit  822
2    Geometry of the transformer phasor diagram  833
3  The transformer circle diagram  839
4  Transformer regulation  844
5    Symmetrical components in unbalanced three-phase systems  848
6    A symmetrical component study of earth faults in transformers in parallel  871
7  The use of fi nite-element analysis in the calculation of  leakage fl ux and dielectric stress distributions  921
8    List of national and international standards relating to  power transformers  950
9    List of principal CIGRE reports and papers relating to transformers  961
10  List of reports available from ERA Technology Ltd  964

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