EBOOK - Handbook Of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing (Saeid Mokhatab)


EBOOK - Sổ tay công nghệ truyền tải khí đốt (Saeid Mokhatab) - 666 Trang.

Natural gas is an emergent fuel of choice for environmentally aware due to the lower noxious emissions compared with other fossil fuels. Exploration activity by major multinational oil and gas companies is aimed increasingly to find gas in remote locations and in ever deeper ocean depths. Once a gas field has been discovered, the gas accumulation must be developed, produced, gathered, processed, and transported to the consumer. Transport of gas by pipelines to distant delivery points presents unique challenges of flow through long conduits.

Processing of the gas to meet delivery specifications is required and this requires process systems design for each production facility. With this book we have sought to provide a comprehensive technical text that reflects a broad spectrum of natural gas transmission and processing experience. This handbook has been written to assist both the novice and the experienced technical professional in natural gas engineering practice. Emphasis is placed on developing the fundamental concepts and tools of the subject and on discussing basic applications for engineering purposes.
To keep things interesting for the expert, we have sought to include the most current developments reported in the latest published works in the research journals. The selection of some of the material also reflects our own research involvement in problems related to natural gas engineering. We have also taken advantage of some authoritative publications and papers published in the recent years from different sources as well as standards and recommendations published by several research institutions. Therefore, readers are strongly recommended to study the references indicated in the text to find more details on each subject.

CONTENTS:

1 Natural Gas Fundamental 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Natural Gas History 2
1.3 Natural Gas Origin and Composition 2
1.4 Gas Sources 4
1.4.1 Non-associated Gas 4
1.4.2 Associated Gas 5
1.4.3 Coal Bed Methane 6
1.5 Natural Gas Phase Behavior 8
1.6 Natural Gas Properties 9
1.6.1 Chemical and Physical Properties 9
1.6.2 Gas-Specific Gravity 10
1.6.3 Ideal and Real Gas Laws 11
1.6.4 Gas Formation Volume Factor 15
1.6.5 Gas Density 16
1.6.6 Isothermal Compressibility of Gases 17
1.6.7 Gas Viscosity 17
1.7 Quality 18
1.8 Transportation 19
1.8.1 Pipelines 19
1.8.2 Liquefied Natural Gas 19
1.8.3 Compressed Natural Gas 20
1.8.4 Gas to Solid 22
1.8.5 Gas to Power 24
1.8.6 Gas to Liquids 25
1.8.7 Gas to Commodity 26
References 27
2 Natural Gas Energy Pricing 29
2.1 Introduction 29
2.2 Energy Pricing, Supply, and Demand 30
2.3 Sustainability and the Increasing Fascination with
Natural Gas 32
2.4 Is Natural Gas Always “Nonrenewable?” 34
2.5 U.S. Natural Gas: Pricing, Markets, Risk Management,
and Supply 37
2.5.1 Some Features of Current Natural Gas Pricing in the
United States 37
2.5.2 U.S. Energy Markets: The Regulation–Deregulation
Nexus 41
2.5.3 Energy Price Volatility and Derivatives 43
2.5.4 Natural Gas Supply in North America 48
2.6 Natural Gas in Eurasia: The Special Position of
Post-Soviet Russia 63
2.7 Looking to Nature for a New Model 69
References 78
3 Raw Gas Transmission 81
3.1 Introduction 81
3.2 Multiphase Flow Terminology 82
3.2.1 Superficial Velocity 83
3.2.2 Multiphase Flow Mixture Velocity 84
3.2.3 Holdup 84
3.2.4 Phase Velocity 85
3.2.5 Slip 85
3.2.6 Multiphase Flow Density 85
3.3 Multiphase Flow Regimes 86
3.3.1 Two-Phase Flow Regimes 87
3.3.2 Three-Phase Flow Regimes 94
3.4 Calculating Multiphase Flow Pressure Gradients 95
3.4.1 Steady-State Two-Phase Flow 95
3.4.2 Steady-State Three-Phase Flow 103
3.4.3 Transient Multiphase Flow 104
3.5 Multiphase Flow in Gas/Condensate Pipelines 107
3.6 Temperature Profile of Multiphase Pipelines 109
3.7 Velocity Criteria for Sizing Multiphase Pipelines 112
3.7.1 Erosion Criteria 112
3.7.2 Corrosion Criteria 116
3.8 Multiphase Flow Assurance 117
3.8.1 Gas Hydrates 117
3.8.2 Corrosion 136
3.8.3 Wax 140
3.8.4 Severe Slugging 153
3.8.5 Real-Time Flow Assurance Monitoring 163
3.9 Multiphase Pipeline Operations 163
3.9.1 Leak Detection 163
3.9.2 Pigging 165
References 173
4 Basic Concepts of Natural Gas Processing 189
4.1 Introduction 189
4.2 Process Modules 190
4.3 Scope of Natural Gas Processing 193
4.3.1 Processing Objectives 193
4.3.2 Effect of Gas Type in Field Processing 194
4.3.3 Location of the Gas Field 195
References 195
5 Phase Separation 197
5.1 Introduction 197
5.2 Gravity Separators 198
5.2.1 General Description 199
5.2.2 Separator Selection 201
5.2.3 Gravity Separation Theory 203
5.2.4 Design Considerations 206
5.2.5 Design Procedure 206
5.2.6 Practical Separator Design 216
5.2.7 Operating Problems 217
5.3 Multistage Separation 219
5.4 Centrifugal Separators 220
5.5 Twister Supersonic Separator 221
5.6 Slug Catchers 221
5.7 High-Efficiency Liquid–Gas Coalescers 224
5.7.1 Aerosols 224
5.7.2 Coalescer Construction/Operation Principles 225
5.7.3 Modeling the Liquid/Gas Coalescer 228
5.7.4 Coalescer Performance/Operational Limits 231
5.7.5 Liquid/Gas Coalescer Applications 233
5.8 High-Efficiency Liquid–Liquid Coalescers 236
5.8.1 Emulsions 236
5.8.2 Coalescer Principles and Materials of Construction 237
5.8.3 Coalescer Mechanism of Operation 238
5.8.4 Liquid/Liquid Coalescer Performance 241
5.8.5 Limitations of Using Coalescers 242
5.8.6 Applications 242
References 244
6 Condensate Stabilization 247
6.1 Introduction 247
6.2 Stabilization Processes 248
6.2.1 Flash Vaporization 248
6.2.2 Stabilization by Fractionation 249
6.3 Condensate Storage 256
References 259
7 Acid Gas Treating 261
7.1 Introduction 261
7.2 Acid Gas Removal Processes 262
7.2.1 Batch Type Processes 264
7.2.2 Amine Processes 270
7.2.3 Carbonate Washing and Water Washing 281
7.2.4 Methanol Based Processes 282
7.2.5 Other Processes 284
7.2.6 Process Selection 287
7.3 Sulfur Recovery Processes 288
References 291
8 Natural Gas Compression 295
8.1 Introduction 295
8.2 Reciprocating Compressors 296
8.3 Centrifugal Compressors 298
8.4 Comparison between Compressors 299
8.5 Compressor Selection 300
8.6 Thermodynamics of Gas Compression 301
8.7 Real Gas Behavior and Equations of State 307
8.8 Compression Ratio 309
8.9 Compression Design 311
Contents xiii
8.9.1 Determining Number of Stages 311
8.9.2 Inlet Flow Rate 312
8.9.3 Compression Power Calculation 313
8.10 Compressor Control 316
8.10.1 Reciprocating Compressors 317
8.10.2 Centrifugal Compressors 317
8.11 Compressor Performance Maps 319
8.11.1 Reciprocating Compressors 319
8.11.2 Centrifugal Compressors 320
References 321
9 Natural Gas Dehydration 323
9.1 Introduction 323
9.2 Water Content Determination 324
9.3 Glycol Dehydration 325
9.3.1 Process Description 328
9.3.2 Design Considerations 330
9.3.3 Operational Problems 341
9.4 Solid Desiccant Dehydration 346
9.4.1 Desiccant Capacity 347
9.4.2 Desiccant Selection 347
9.4.3 Process Description 350
9.4.4 Design Considerations 353
9.4.5 Operational Problems 358
References 361
10 Natural Gas Liquids Recovery 365
10.1 Introduction 365
10.2 NGL Recovery Processes 366
10.2.1 Refrigeration Processes 366
10.2.2 Lean Oil Absorption 376
10.2.3 Solid Bed Adsorption 377
10.2.4 Membrane Separation Process 379
10.2.5 Selection of NGL Recovery Processes 380
10.3 NGL Fractionation 381
10.3.1 Fractionator Operation 383
10.3.2 Types of Fractionators 385
10.3.3 Fractionator Design 386
10.3.4 Design Procedure 395
10.4 Gasoline and LPG Treating 396
10.4.1 Doctor Sweetening Process 397
xiv Contents
10.4.2 Merox Process 397
References 398
11 Sales Gas Transmission 401
11.1 Introduction 401
11.2 Gas Flow Fundamentals 401
11.2.1 General Flow Equation 402
11.2.2 Friction Factor Correlations 403
11.2.3 Practical Flow Equations 407
11.3 Predicting Gas Temperature Profile 409
11.4 Transient Flow in Gas Transmission Pipelines 414
11.5 Compressor Stations and Associated Pipeline
Installations 415
11.5.1 Compressor Drivers 416
11.5.2 Compressors Configurations 417
11.5.3 Reduction and Metering Stations 417
11.6 Design Considerations of Sales Gas Pipelines 418
11.6.1 Line Sizing Criteria 418
11.6.2 Compressor Station Spacing 421
11.6.3 Compression Power 425
11.7 Pipeline Operations 425
References 428
12 Gas Processing Plant Controls and Automation 431
12.1 Introduction 431
12.2 Early Methods of Gas Plant Automation 432
12.3 Microprocessor-Based Automation 433
12.3.1 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) 433
12.3.2 Distributed Control Systems (DCS) 433
12.3.3 Standards and Protocols 435
12.4 Control of Equipment and Process Systems 436
12.4.1 Gas Gathering 436
12.4.2 Gas Treating 437
12.4.3 Sulfur Recovery 438
12.4.4 Gas Dehydration 438
12.4.5 Liquids Recovery 440
12.4.6 NGL Fractionation 442
12.4.7 Centrifugal Compressors 443
12.4.8 Centrifugal Pumps 444
12.4.9 Reciprocating Pumps 444
12.4.10 Utilities 444
12.5 Automation Applications 445
12.5.1 Data Historians 445
12.5.2 Asset and Performance Management 446
12.5.3 Statistical Process Control 447
12.5.4 Advanced Regulatory Control 448
12.5.5 Multivariable Predictive Control 448
12.5.6 Optimization 450
12.5.7 Leveraging Automation 452
12.6 Condensate Stabilizer Case Study 455
References 458
Suggested Reading 459
13 Dynamic Simulation of Gas Processing Plants 461
13.1 Introduction 461
13.2 Areas of Application of Dynamic Simulation 462
13.2.1 Plant Design 462
13.2.2 Plant Operation 465
13.3 Modeling Considerations 468
13.3.1 Level of Detail in the Model 468
13.3.2 Model Speed 469
13.3.3 Equipment-Specific Considerations 470
13.4 Control of Equipment and Process Systems 472
13.4.1 Gas Gathering and Transportation 473
13.4.2 Gas Treating 473
13.4.3 Sulfur Recovery 473
13.4.4 Gas Dehydration 473
13.4.5 Liquids Recovery, Natural Gas Liquefaction 474
13.4.6 NGL Fractionation 474
13.5 Case Study I: Analysis of a Fuel Gas System Start-up 474
13.5.1 Introduction 475
13.5.2 Steady-State Analysis 476
13.5.3 Dynamic Analysis 476
13.5.4 Conclusion 477
13.6 Case Study II: Online Dynamic Model of a Trunk Pipeline 478
References 482
Suggested Reading 483
14 Environmental Aspects of Gas Processing and Use 485
14.1 Introduction 485
14.2 Environmental Impacts of Natural Gas Processing 486
14.2.1 Air Pollutant Emissions 486
14.2.2 Gas Flaring Emissions 490
14.2.3 Methane Emissions 492
14.2.4 Water Pollution 496
14.2.5 Soil Pollution 497
14.2.6 Pollution Prevention 497
14.3 Emissions from Natural Gas Use 498
14.3.1 Combustion Emissions 498
14.3.2 Acid Rain Formation 500
14.3.3 Smog Formation 500
14.3.4 Greenhouse Gas Emissions 501
14.3.5 Industrial and Electric Generation Emissions 502
14.4 Protocols and Environmental Programs 503
14.5 Environmental Management System 504
References 505
15 Maximizing Profitability of Gas Plant Assets 507
15.1 Introduction 507
15.2 The Performance Strategy: Integrated Gas Plant 509
15.3 Strategies for Organizational Behavior and Information 510
15.4 Organizational Behavior Model 510
15.4.1 Information Quality 511
15.4.2 Perception of Information 513
15.4.3 Capability to Perform 515
15.4.4 Organizational Hierarchy of Needs 518
15.4.5 Behavior 520
15.5 The Successful Information Strategy 520
15.6 The Impact of Living with Information Technology 521
15.7 Vision of the Modern Plant Operation 523
15.8 Operations Strategy 524
15.9 Model Based Asset Management 525
15.10 Optimization 526
15.10.1 Tools for Optimization 527
15.10.2 Optimization Alternatives 527
15.11 Industrial Relevance 530
15.12 The Technology Integration Challenge 531
15.13 Scientific Approach 532
15.14 Other Miscellaneous Initiatives 533
15.15 Conclusion 534
References 536
Suggested Reading 537
16 Gas Plant Project Management 539
16.1 Introduction 539
16.2 Project Management Overview 540
16.3 Industry Perspective 540
16.4 The Project Management Process 541
16.4.1 Defining Business and Project Objectives 543
16.4.2 Contracting Strategy 545
16.4.3 Conceptual Estimates and Schedules 546
16.4.4 Project Execution Planning 549
16.4.5 Pre Project Planning Measurement 550
16.4.6 The Responsibility Matrix 550
16.5 Project Controls 551
16.5.1 Project Time Line 551
16.5.2 Risk Management 552
16.6 Quality Assurance 562
16.7 Commissioning and Start-up 564
16.8 Operate and Evaluate 565
16.9 Project Closeout 565
16.10 Conclusion 566
References 567
Suggested Reading 567
Appendix 1 Three-Phase Flash Calculation for Hydrocarbon
Systems Containing Water 569
Appendix 2 Conversion Factors 577
Appendix 3 Physical Properties of Fluids 579
Glossary and Acronyms 593

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