EBOOK - Wind Energy Engineering (Pramod Jain)


EBOOK - Kỹ thuật năng lượng gió (Pramod Jain) - 352 Trang.

I have been interested in writing short technical articles from my graduate school days. I was never good at it. In those days, I supposedly wrote dense stuff, and the audience I had in mind were experts in the field. This changed as I wrote for a corporate audience. When I got into the wind business, I wrote white papers and blogs regularly but never considered writing a book.

The idea of writing this book came to me from a dear friend Satya Komatineni, author of books on Android. He encouraged me to send a proposal to McGraw-Hill about the book. This led me down to a nine-month long adventure. The best metaphor to describe the adventure is that writing a book is akin to the nine-month process of gestation and birthing of the first child. Although I have not personally experienced it, I have lived with someone who has. It is exciting, uncomfortable, painful, at times really painful, and in the end, the product makes you forget the pain.

CONTENTS:

1 Overview of Wind Energy Business .......... 1
Introduction .......................... 1
Worldwide Business of Wind Energy .......... 1
Cost of Wind Energy ..................... 4
Benefits of Wind Energy .................. 4
Wind Energy Is Not a Panacea .............. 6
2 Basics of Wind Energy and Power ............ 9
Introduction .......................... 9
Kinetic Energy of Wind ................... 9
Sensitivity of Power to Rotor Radius
and Wind Speed ...................... 11
Basic Concepts/Equations ................. 12
Conservation of Mass .................... 12
Conservation of Energy ................... 13
Conservation of Momentum ................ 14
Derivation of Betz Limit .................. 16
The Meaning of Betz Limit ................. 20
Wind versus Water...................... 22
3 Properties of Wind ..................... 25
Introduction .......................... 25
How Is Wind Generated? .................. 25
Statistical Distribution of Wind Speed .......... 26
Mean and Mode of Weibull Distribution
for Wind Speed .................... 29
Power Density ........................ 30
Wind Classes ......................... 31
Wind Shear........................... 33
Understanding Wind Shear .............. 36
Density of Air as a Function of Elevation ........ 37
Density of Air as a Function of Humidity ..... 39
4 Aerodynamics of Wind Turbine Blades ........ 41
Introduction .......................... 41
Airfoils ............................. 41
Relative Velocity of Wind .................. 44
Rotor Disk Theory ...................... 47
Lift Force ............................ 51
Equal Transit Time Fallacy .............. 51
Rotation Fluid Flow, Circulation, and Vortices .. 51
Real Fluids ........................ 55
Flow of Fluid over an Airfoil ............. 56
Effect of Reynolds Number on Lift and Drag
Coefficients ...................... 58
Drag-Based Turbines .................... 59
5 Advanced Aerodynamics of Wind Turbine Blades . 63
Introduction .......................... 63
Blade Element Model .................... 63
Constant-Speed Turbines, Stall-versus
Pitch-Regulated ...................... 68
Variable-Speed Turbines .................. 70
Power Curves ......................... 70
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) ........... 72
6 Wind Measurement ..................... 75
Introduction .......................... 75
Definition of Wind Speed .................. 75
Configurations to Measure Wind ............. 76
Anemometer ....................... 77
Calibration of Anemometers ............. 81
Wind Vane ........................ 81
Placement of Sensors .................. 82
Impact of Inflow Angle ................ 85
Impact of Temperature ................. 85
Uncertainty in Wind Speed Measurement
with Anemometers ................. 85
Example of Error Estimate .............. 88
Other Sensors ...................... 89
Data Logger and Communication Device ..... 89
Designing a Wind Measurement Campaign ...... 90
Installation of Met-Towers ................. 93
Example of Met-Tower Installation ............ 94
Data Management ...................... 94
Data Processing ........................ 96
Computed Quantities .................... 101
Turbulence ........................ 101
Wind Shear........................ 103
Air Density ........................ 104
Power Density ...................... 105
Remote Sensing to Measure Wind Speed ........ 105
Pros and Cons of Remote Sensing for Wind
Measurements .................... 106
7 Wind Resource Assessment ................ 111
Introduction .......................... 111
Overview of Wind Resource Assessment ........ 111
Source of Wind Data ..................... 113
Resource Estimation Models ................ 114
Mesoscale Models ...................... 114
CFD Models ....................... 115
WAsP, a Microscale Model .............. 115
Definitions ........................ 115
Phases of Resource Assessment .............. 122
Preliminary Wind Resource Assessment ........ 123
Wind Resource Map Lookup............. 123
Preliminary Analysis of Data from Neighboring
Airports and Other Met-Towers ........... 125
Detailed Analysis of Wind Data from Neighboring
Airports and Other Met-Towers ......... 125
Onsite Wind Measurement ................. 126
Spatial Extrapolation of Wind Resources from
Measured Locations to Planned Wind Turbine
Locations .......................... 126
Hindcasting/MCP of Measured Data .......... 127
Predict ........................... 133
Annual Energy Computations ............... 145
8 Advanced Wind Resource Assessment ......... 147
Introduction .......................... 147
Extreme Wind Speed (EWS) ................ 148
WAsP Model in Rugged Terrain ............. 151
Wake of Turbines ....................... 153
N.O. Jensen Model for Wake ............. 154
Ainslie’s Eddy Viscosity Model ........... 155
Combining Wind Speed Deficits from
Multiple Turbines .................. 155
Turbulence Modeling ................. 156
Optimal Layout of Turbines in Wind Farm ....... 156
Wind Turbine Class Selection ............... 158
Estimation of Losses ..................... 160
Uncertainty Analysis .................... 164
Estimating Uncertainty of Annual Energy Production:
Framework for Combining Uncertainty ....... 165
Nonbankable versus Bankable Resource Estimates .. 167
x Contents
9 Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) Components .... 169
Introduction .......................... 169
Rotor System ......................... 169
Blades ........................... 170
Forces and Moments .................. 172
Rotor Hub ........................ 173
Alternative Configurations of Turbines ......... 173
Pitch ............................ 177
Nacelle........................... 178
Gearbox .......................... 178
Yaw Drive ......................... 178
Nacelle Housing and Frame ............. 179
Lifting/Lowering Mechanism ............ 180
Towers ........................... 180
Foundation ....................... 181
Spread-Footing Foundation ............. 182
Design Loads of Wind Turbines ........... 185
Design Wind Conditions ............... 186
Normal Wind Profile Model (NWP) ........ 186
Extreme Wind Speed Model (EWM) ........ 188
Turbine Certification .................. 189
10 Basics of Electricity and Generators .......... 197
Introduction .......................... 197
Basic Principles of Electromagnetism .......... 197
Faraday’s Law of Induction ............. 198
Lenz Law ......................... 198
Lorenz Law or Biot-Savart Law ........... 198
Basic Principles of Alternating Current ......... 199
Basic Principles of Electrical Machines ......... 200
Conversion of Mechanical to Electrical Power .. 202
Synchronous Generator ................... 203
Analysis of Synchronous Generator ........... 205
Variable-Speed Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Generators .............. 208
Direct-Drive Synchronous Generator (DDSG) .. 211
Asynchronous Generators ................. 212
Variable Speed ...................... 216
11 Deploying Wind Turbines in Grid ........... 221
Introduction .......................... 221
What Happens on a Grid When There Is
No Wind? .......................... 221
“Scheduling” and Dispatch of Wind
Resources .......................... 223
Single-Line Diagram ..................... 224
Transmission and Distribution .............. 227
Standards for Interconnection ............... 229
Power Factor and Reactive Power .......... 229
Low-Voltage Ride-Through .............. 231
Power Quality: Flicker, and Harmonics ......... 232
Short-Circuit Power .................. 232
Wind Farm Topologies ................... 233
Protection Systems ...................... 236
Grounding for Overvoltage and Lightning
Protection .......................... 237
Lightning Protection .................. 238
Transformers for Wind Applications ........... 239
Wind-Plant Interconnection and
Transmission Study .................... 240
Transmission Bottlenecks .................. 242
SCADA Systems ....................... 242
Data Acquisition .................... 243
Reporting ......................... 243
Control .......................... 244
12 Environmental Impact of Wind Projects ........ 247
Introduction .......................... 247
Framework for Analyzing Environmental Impact .. 248
Context of Environmental Impact .......... 248
Temporal and Spatial Scale .............. 249
Cumulative Effects ................... 249
Quick Comparison of Wind Versus Fossil Fuel–Based
Electricity Production .................. 249
Impact of Wind Farms on Wildlife ............ 250
Noise from Wind Turbines ................. 254
Mitigation of Noise................... 256
Low-Frequency Noise ................. 257
Shadow Flicker ........................ 258
Aesthetic Impact ....................... 258
Hazard to Aviation ...................... 260
Electromagnetic Interference ................ 261
Microwave ........................ 261
T V and Radio Transmissions ............. 263
Radar ........................... 263
13 Financial Modeling of Wind Projects .......... 269
Introduction .......................... 269
Financial Model ........................ 269
Revenue Model ..................... 269
Renewable Energy Credits and Carbon
Credits ........................... 274
Revenue Computations ................ 275
Capital Costs ....................... 275
Cost of Turbine ..................... 278
Cost of Foundation, Erection, Access Roads,
and Other Civil Works ............... 278
Substation, Control System, Cables, Installation,
and Others Related to Grid Connection .... 279
Other Costs ........................ 279
Operating Costs ..................... 279
Depreciation and Taxes ................... 281
Financial Statements ..................... 282
Income Statement and Cash Flow for a
Wind Project...................... 282
Balance Sheet for a Wind Project ........... 282
Financial Performance ................. 283
Net Present Value (NPV) ............... 286
Payback Period ..................... 286
Internal Rate of Return (IRR) ............. 287
Impact of Tax Credits and Accelerated
Depreciation on Financial Performance ..... 287
Financing and Structure of Wind Projects ........ 294
Financial Evaluation of Alternatives ........... 297
14 Planning and Execution of Wind Projects ....... 301
Introduction .......................... 301
High-Level Project Plan and Timeline .......... 301
Development ....................... 302
Prospecting ........................ 303
Wind Measurement and Detailed Wind
Assessment ...................... 303
Project Siting, Interconnection, and PPA ...... 305
Project Engineering and Procurement ....... 307
Project Financing .................... 312
Construction, Installation, and Commissioning .... 313
Construction of Infrastructure ............ 314
Site Preparation ..................... 314
Foundation Construction and Turbine Erection . 315
Collection System and Substation Construction . 318
Commissioning ..................... 318
Operations ........................... 320


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