EBOOK - Troubleshooting and Repairing Diesel Engines - Fourth Edition (Paul Dempsey)

EBOOK - Khắc phục sự cố và sửa chữa động cơ Diesel - 4th (Paul Dempsey) - 408 Trang.

There are several areas that have changed drastically during the last few years with diesel engines and will greatly affect the near future of diesel engine technologies. The highway trucking industry was the first to require these changes to meet federal EPA emissions guidelines for diesel engines back in the late 1980s. In the mid-1990s these same guidelines were required of the off-highway heavy equipment industry. Now even areas not affected in the past such as the marine, petroleum, and agricultural industries have come under these new requirements. They will change these industries in the same way they have previously changed the trucking and heavy equipment industries. During the last 20 years only certain engine horsepower sizes or industries have come under these federal guidelines. However, the 2007, 2010, and 2012 emissions guidelines will cover and affect all horsepower sizes and industries. Additionally, in most areas the current technologies to meet the 2007 guidelines will not completely meet the 2010 and 2012 requirements without additional technological changes or improvements.

These technological changes are inevitable and future technician training needs will be a reality. This is where diesel engine course books like Troubleshooting and Repairing Diesel Enginescan help the technician stay current with these changing technologies. To show how rapidly these changes have taken place, information of some past and current examples of those areas affected are mentioned.
Since the inception of the EPA guidelines for diesel engines back in the 1980s, most major engine manufacturers have meant the following reductions. Engine particulates have been reduced by 90% and nitrous oxides by nearly 70%. Added to the equation in the 1990s was noise pollution, with reductions required in engine noise levels from 83 to 80 decibels. Although this doesn’t seem like much, it is equal to a 50% noise energy reduction. Add to that the effects of the reduction in fuel sulfur in diesel fuels from 5% to 0.5% to 0.05% (in ppm, 5000 to 500 to 50). Sulfur being the lubricating element in diesel fuels has required many changes to fuel system components.


1 Rudolf Diesel 1
2 Diesel basics 9
Compression ratio 9
Induction 12
Ignition and combustion 13
Two- and four-stroke-cycle 15
Power and torque 18
Fuel efficiency 18
Weight 19
Durability 19
Conventional fuels 20
3 Engine installation 23
Trucks and other motor vehicles 23
Stationary engines 26
Marine engines 30
4 Basic troubleshooting 39
Malfunctions 40
Tests 42
Air inlet system 50
Glow plugs 53
Exhaust backpressure 54
Engine mechanical 54
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5 Mechanical fuel systems 61
Air blast 61
Early common-rail 61
Jerk pump system 62
Inline pumps 63
Distributor pumps 67
Delivery valves 74
Injectors 76
Timers 79
Diaphragm controls 81
Centrifugal governors 81
Pneumatic governors 85
Unit injection 87
Low-pressure system 90
Fuel filters and water separators 92
6 Electronic management systems 95
Background 95
Analog versus digital 100
Bosch CAN bus 101
On-board computer 102
Tools 107
Troubleshooting 108
Caterpillar EMS 111
Ford (International) 7.3L DI power stroke 124
Detroit Diesel 129
7 Cylinder heads and valves 139
Combustion chamber types 140
Valve configuration 144
Before you begin 147
8 Engine mechanics 177
Scope of work 177
Diagnosis 179
Rigging 179
Special considerations 181
Cleaning 188
Teardown 189
Lubrication system 189
Filters 195
Block casting 204
Pistons 217
Connecting rods 226
viii Contents
Crankshafts 233
Camshafts and related parts 237
Harmonic balancers 239
Crankshaft bearings 239
Assembly—major components 241
9 Air systems 255
Air cleaners 255
Construction 255
Turbochargers 258
Applications 261
Construction 262
Variable geometry turbine 271
10 Electrical fundamentals 273
Electrons 273
Circuits 274
Electrical measurements 277
Ohm’s law 278
Direct and alternating current 280
Magnetism 283
Electromagnets 284
Voltage sources 285
Generator principles 285
dc motors 289
Storage batteries 292
Switches 294
Solid-state components 299
11 Starting and generating systems 301
Starting aids 302
Wiring 303
Starter circuits 304
Solenoids 318
Starter drives 321
Charging systems 322
Voltage regulation 331
Solid-state regulators 332
Batteries 332
12 Cooling systems 339
Air cooling 339
Liquid cooling 341
13 Greener diesels 359
Brazil 359
U.S. and Europe 361
Straight vegetable oil 363
Dual-fuel engines 365
Conventional fuel 366


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