EBOOK - Advanced DC/DC Converters - Second Edition (FANG LIN LUO & HONG YE)


DC/DC conversion techniques have undergone rapid development in recent decades. With the pioneering work of authors Fang Lin Luo and Hong Ye, DC/DC converters have now been sorted into their six generations, and by a rough count, over 800 different topologies currently exist, with more being developed each year. Advanced DC/DC Converters, Second Edition offers a concise, practical presentation of DC/DC converters, summarizes the spectrum of conversion technologies, and presents new ideas and more than 200 new topologies. Beginning with background material on DC/DC conversion, the book later discusses both voltage lift and super-lift converters. It then proceeds through each generation, including the groundbreaking sixth generation—converters developed by the authors that can be cascaded for high voltage transfer gain.


CONTENTS:

1. Introduction
1.1 Historical Review
1.2 Multiple-Quadrant Choppers
1.2.1 Multiple-Quadrant Operation
1.2.2 First-Quadrant Chopper
1.2.3 Second-Quadrant Chopper
1.2.4 Third-Quadrant Chopper
1.2.5 Fourth-Quadrant Chopper
1.2.6 First- and Second-Quadrant Chopper
1.2.7 Third-Fourth-Quadrant Chopper
1.2.8 Four-Quadrant Chopper
1.3 Pump Circuits
1.3.1 Fundamental Pumps
1.3.1.1 Buck Pump
1.3.1.2 Boost Pump
1.3.1.3 Buck-Boost Pump
1.3.2 Developed Pumps
1.3.2.1 Positive Luo-Pump
1.3.2.2 Negative Luo-Pump
1.3.2.3 Cúk Pump
1.3.3 Transformer-Type Pumps
1.3.3.1 Forward Pump
1.3.3.2 Flyback Pump
1.3.3.3 ZETA Pump
1.3.4 SL Pumps
1.3.4.1 Positive Super Luo-Pump
1.3.4.2 Negative Super Luo-Pump
1.3.4.3 Positive Push-Pull Pump
1.3.4.4 Negative Push-Pull Pump
1.3.4.5 DEC
1.4 Development of DC/DC Conversion Technique
1.4.1 First-Generation Converters
1.4.1.1 Fundamental Converters
1.4.1.2 Transformer-Type Converters
1.4.1.3 Developed Converters
1.4.1.4 VL Converters
1.4.1.5 SL Converters
1.4.2 Second-Generation Converters
1.4.3 Third-Generation Converters
1.4.3.1 Switched-Capacitor Converters
1.4.3.2 Multiple-Quadrant Switched-Capacitor Luo-Converters
1.4.3.3 Multiple-Lift Push-Pull Switched-Capacitor Converters
1.4.3.4 Switched-Inductor Converters
1.4.4 Fourth-Generation Converters
1.4.4.1 ZCS-QRCs
1.4.4.2 ZVS-QRCs
1.4.4.3 ZT Converters
1.4.5 Fifth-Generation Converters
1.4.6 Sixth-Generation Converters
1.5 Categorizing Prototypes and DC/DC Converter Family Tree
Bibliography
2. Voltage-Lift Converters
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Seven Self-Lift Converters
2.2.1 Self-Lift Cúk Converter
2.2.1.1 Continuous Conduction Mode
2.2.1.2 Discontinuous Conduction Mode
2.2.2 Self-Lift P/O Luo-Converter
2.2.2.1 Continuous Conduction Mode
2.2.2.2 Discontinuous Conduction Mode
2.2.3 Reverse Self-Lift P/O Luo-Converter
2.2.3.1 Continuous Conduction Mode
2.2.3.2 Discontinuous Conduction Mode
2.2.4 Self-Lift N/O Luo-Converter
2.2.4.1 Continuous Conduction Mode
2.2.4.2 Discontinuous Conduction Mode
2.2.5 Reverse Self-Lift N/O Luo-Converter
2.2.5.1 Continuous Conduction Mode
2.2.5.2 Discontinuous Conduction Mode
2.2.6 Self-Lift SEPIC
2.2.6.1 Continuous Conduction Mode
2.2.6.2 Discontinuous Conduction Mode
2.2.7 Enhanced Self-Lift P/O Luo-Converters
2.3 P/O Luo-Converters
2.3.1 Elementary Circuit
2.3.1.1 Circuit Description
2.3.1.2 Variations of Currents and Voltages
2.3.1.3 Instantaneous Values of Currents and Voltages
2.3.1.4 Discontinuous Conduction Mode
2.3.1.5 Stability Analysis
2.3.2 Self-Lift Circuit
2.3.2.1 Circuit Description
2.3.2.2 Average Current I
C1
and Source Current I
S
2.3.2.3 Variations of Currents and Voltages
2.3.2.4 Instantaneous Value of the Currents and Voltages
2.3.2.5 Discontinuous Conduction Mode
2.3.2.6 Stability Analysis
2.3.3 Re-Lift Circuit
2.3.3.1 Circuit Description
2.3.3.2 Other Average Currents
2.3.3.3 Variations of Currents and Voltages
2.3.3.4 Instantaneous Value of the Currents and Voltages
2.3.3.5 Discontinuous Conduction Mode
2.3.3.6 Stability Analysis
2.3.4 Multiple-Lift Circuits
2.3.4.1 Triple-Lift Circuit
2.3.4.2 Quadruple-Lift Circuit
2.3.5 Summary
2.3.6 Discussions
2.3.6.1 Discontinuous Conduction Mode
2.3.6.2 Output Voltage V
o
versus Conduction Duty Cycle k
2.3.6.3 Switching Frequency f
2.4 N/O Luo-Converters
2.4.1 Elementary Circuit
2.4.1.1 Circuit Description
2.4.1.2 Average Voltages and Currents
2.4.1.3 Variations of Currents and Voltages
2.4.1.4 Instantaneous Values of Currents and Voltages
2.4.1.5 Discontinuous Mode
2.4.2 Self-Lift Circuit
2.4.2.1 Circuit Description
2.4.2.2 Average Voltages and Currents
2.4.2.3 Variations of Currents and Voltages
2.4.2.4 Instantaneous Value of the Currents and Voltages
2.4.2.5 Discontinuous Mode
2.4.3 Re-Lift Circuit
2.4.3.1 Circuit Description
2.4.3.2 Average Voltages and Currents
2.4.3.3 Variations of Currents and Voltages
2.4.3.4 Instantaneous Values of the Currents and Voltages
2.4.3.5 Discontinuous Mode
2.4.4 Multiple-Lift Circuits
2.4.4.1 Triple-Lift Circuit
2.4.4.2 Quadruple-Lift Circuit
2.4.5 Summary
2.5 Modified P/O Luo-Converters
2.5.1 Elementary Circuit
2.5.2 Self-Lift Circuit
2.5.3 Re-Lift Circuit
2.5.4 Multiple-Lift Circuit
2.5.5 Application
2.6 Double-Output Luo-Converters
2.6.1 Elementary Circuit
2.6.1.1 Positive Conversion Path
2.6.1.2 Negative Conversion Path
2.6.1.3 Discontinuous Mode
2.6.2 Self-Lift Circuit
2.6.2.1 Positive Conversion Path
2.6.2.2 Negative Conversion Path
2.6.2.3 Discontinuous Conduction Mode
2.6.3 Re-Lift Circuit
2.6.3.1 Positive Conversion Path
2.6.3.2 Negative Conversion Path
2.6.3.3 Discontinuous Conduction Mode
2.6.4 Multiple-Lift Circuit
2.6.4.1 Triple-Lift Circuit
2.6.4.2 Quadruple-Lift Circuit
2.6.5 Summary
2.6.5.1 Positive Conversion Path
2.6.5.2 Negative Conversion Path
2.6.5.3 Common Parameters
Bibliography
3. Positive-Output Super-Lift Luo-Converters
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Main Series
3.2.1 Elementary Circuit
3.2.2 Re-Lift Circuit
3.2.3 Triple-Lift Circuit
3.2.4 Higher-Order Lift Circuit
3.3 Additional Series
3.3.1 Elementary Additional Circuit
3.3.2 Re-Lift Additional Circuit
3.3.3 Triple-Lift Additional Circuit
3.3.4 Higher-Order Lift Additional Circuit
3.4 Enhanced Series
3.4.1 Elementary Enhanced Circuit
3.4.2 Re-Lift Enhanced Circuit
3.4.3 Triple-Lift Enhanced Circuit
3.4.4 Higher-Order Lift Enhanced Circuit
3.5 Re-Enhanced Series
3.5.1 Elementary Re-Enhanced Circuit
3.5.2 Re-Lift Re-Enhanced Circuit
3.5.3 Triple-Lift Re-Enhanced Circuit
3.5.4 Higher-Order Lift Re-Enhanced Circuit
3.6 Multiple-Enhanced Series
3.6.1 Elementary Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
3.6.2 Re-Lift Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
3.6.3 Triple-Lift Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
3.6.4 Higher-Order Lift Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
3.7 Summary of Positive-Output Super-Lift Luo-Converters
3.8 Simulation Results
3.8.1 Simulation Results of a Triple-Lift Circuit
3.8.2 Simulation Results of a Triple-Lift Additional Circuit
3.9 Experimental Results
3.9.1 Experimental Results of a Triple-Lift Circuit
3.9.2 Experimental Results of a Triple-Lift Additional Circuit
3.9.3 Efficiency Comparison of Simulation and Experimental Results
References
4. Negative-Output Super-Lift Luo-Converters
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Main Series
4.2.1 Elementary Circuit
4.2.2 N/O Re-Lift Circuit
4.2.3 N/O Triple-Lift Circuit
4.2.4 N/O Higher-Order Lift Circuit
4.3 Additional Series
4.3.1 N/O Elementary Additional Circuit
4.3.2 N/O Re-Lift Additional Circuit
4.3.3 N/O Triple-Lift Additional Circuit
4.3.4 N/O Higher-Order Lift Additional Circuit
4.4 Enhanced Series
4.4.1 N/O Elementary Enhanced Circuit
4.4.2 N/O Re-Lift Enhanced Circuit
4.4.3 N/O Triple-Lift Enhanced Circuit
4.4.4 N/O Higher-Order Lift Enhanced Circuit
4.5 Re-Enhanced Series
4.5.1 N/O Elementary Re-Enhanced Circuit
4.5.2 N/O Re-Lift Re-Enhanced Circuit
4.5.3 N/O Triple-Lift Re-Enhanced Circuit
4.5.4 N/O Higher-Order Lift Re-Enhanced Circuit
4.6 Multiple-Enhanced Series
4.6.1 N/O Elementary Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
4.6.2 N/O Re-Lift Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
4.6.3 N/O Triple-Lift Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
4.6.4 N/O Higher-Order Lift Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
4.7 Summary of Negative-Output Super-Lift Luo-Converters
4.8 Simulation Results
4.8.1 Simulation Results of an N/O Triple-Lift Circuit
4.8.2 Simulation Results of an N/O Triple-Lift Additional Circuit
4.9 Experimental Results
4.9.1 Experimental Results of an N/O Triple-Lift Circuit
4.9.2 Experimental Results of an N/O Triple-Lift Additional Circuit
4.9.3 Efficiency Comparison of Simulation and Experimental Results
4.9.4 Transient Process and Stability Analysis
Bibliography
5. Positive-Output Cascaded Boost Converters
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Main Series
5.2.1 Elementary Boost Circuit
5.2.2 Two-Stage Boost Circuit
5.2.3 Three-Stage Boost Circuit
5.2.4 Higher-Stage Boost Circuit
5.3 Additional Series
5.3.1 Elementary Boost Additional (Double) Circuit
5.3.2 Two-Stage Boost Additional Circuit
5.3.3 Three-Stage Boost Additional Circuit
5.3.4 Higher-Stage Boost Additional Circuit
5.4 Double Series
5.4.1 Elementary Double Boost Circuit
5.4.2 Two-Stage Double Boost Circuit
5.4.3 Three-Stage Double Boost Circuit
5.4.4 Higher-Stage Double Boost Circuit
5.5 Triple Series
5.5.1 Elementary Triple Boost Circuit
5.5.2 Two-Stage Triple Boost Circuit
5.5.3 Three-Stage Triple Boost Circuit
5.5.4 Higher-Stage Triple Boost Circuit
5.6 Multiple Series
5.6.1 Elementary Multiple Boost Circuit
5.6.2 Two-Stage Multiple Boost Circuit
5.6.3 Three-Stage Multiple Boost Circuit
5.6.4 Higher-Stage Multiple Boost Circuit
5.7 Summary of Positive-Output Cascaded Boost Converters
5.8 Simulation and Experimental Results
5.8.1 Simulation Results of a Three-Stage Boost Circuit
5.8.2 Experimental Results of a Three-Stage Boost Circuit
5.8.3 Efficiency Comparison of Simulation and Experimental Results
5.8.4 Transient Process
Bibliography
6. Negative-Output Cascaded Boost Converters
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Main Series
6.2.1 N/O Elementary Boost Circuit
6.2.2 N/O Two-Stage Boost Circuit
6.2.3 N/O Three-Stage Boost Circuit
6.2.4 N/O Higher-Stage Boost Circuit
6.3 Additional Series
6.3.1 N/O Elementary Additional Boost Circuit
6.3.2 N/O Two-Stage Additional Boost Circuit
6.3.3 N/O Three-Stage Additional Boost Circuit
6.3.4 N/O Higher-Stage Additional Boost Circuit
6.4 Double Series
6.4.1 N/O Elementary Double Boost Circuit
6.4.2 N/O Two-Stage Double Boost Circuit
6.4.3 N/O Three-Stage Double Boost Circuit
6.4.4 N/O Higher-Stage Double Boost Circuit
6.5 Triple Series
6.5.1 N/O Elementary Triple Boost Circuit
6.5.2 N/O Two-Stage Triple Boost Circuit
6.5.3 N/O Three-Stage Triple Boost Circuit
6.5.4 N/O Higher-Stage Triple Boost Circuit
6.6 Multiple Series
6.6.1 N/O Elementary Multiple Boost Circuit
6.6.2 N/O Two-Stage Multiple Boost Circuit
6.6.3 N/O Three-Stage Multiple Boost Circuit
6.6.4 N/O Higher-Stage Multiple Boost Circuit
6.7 Summary of N/O Cascaded Boost Converters
6.8 Simulation and Experimental Results
6.8.1 Simulation Results of a Three-Stage Boost Circuit
6.8.2 Experimental Results of a Three-Stage Boost Circuit
6.8.3 Efficiency Comparison of Simulation and Experimental Results
6.8.4 Transient Process
Bibliography
7. Ultra-Lift Luo-Converter
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Operation of Ultra-Lift Luo-Converter
7.2.1 Continuous Conduction Mode
7.2.2 Discontinuous Conduction Mode
7.3 Instantaneous Values
7.3.1 Continuous Conduction Mode
7.3.2 Discontinuous Conduction Mode
7.4 Comparison of the Gain to Other Converters’ Gains
7.5 Simulation Results
7.6 Experimental Results
7.7 Summary
Bibliography
8. Hybrid Split Capacitors and Split Inductors Applied in Positive-Output Super-Lift
Luo-Converters
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Split Capacitors and Split Inductors
8.2.1 Split Capacitors
8.2.2 Split Inductors
8.3 Split Capacitors and Split Inductors Applied in the P/O Elementary Super-Lift LuoConverter
8.3.1 Two Split Capacitors = 2) Applied in the P/O Elementary SL Circuit
8.3.2 Two Split Inductors = 2) Applied in the Elementary P/O SL Circuit
8.3.3 α Split Capacitors and β Split Inductors Applied in the Elementary P/O SL Circuit
8.4 Main Series
8.5 MEC, Split Capacitors Used in DEC
8.6 Additional Series
8.6.1 Elementary Additional Circuit
8.6.2 Re-Lift Additional Circuit
8.6.3 Triple-Lift Additional Circuit
8.6.4 Higher-Order Lift Additional Circuits
8.7 Synthesis of Main Series and Additional Series P/O SL Luo-Converters
8.8 Simulation Results
8.8.1 Simulation Results of a Re-Lift Circuit
8.8.2 Simulation Results of a Triple-Lift Circuit
8.8.3 Simulation Results of a Re-Lift Additional Circuit
8.8.4 Simulation Results of a Triple-Lift Additional Circuit
8.9 Experimental Result
8.9.1 Experimental Results of a Re-Lift Circuit
8.9.2 Experimental Results of a Triple-Lift Circuit
8.9.3 Experimental Results of a Re-Lift Additional Circuit
8.9.4 Experimental Results of a Triple-Lift Additional Circuit
8.10 Transient Process Waveforms
8.11 Summary
Bibliography
9. Mathematical Modeling of Power DC/DC Converters
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Energy Factor and Relevant Parameters
9.3 Applications of Parameters
9.3.1 Power Efficiency η
9.3.2 System Stability
9.3.3 Time Constant τ of a Power DC/DC Converter
9.3.4 Damping Time Constant τ
d
of a Power DC/DC Converter
9.4 Transfer Function of Power DC/DC Converters
9.4.1 Very Small Variation of Storage Energy
9.4.2 Small Variation of Storage Energy
9.4.3 Critical Variation of Storage Energy
9.4.4 Large Variation of Storage Energy
9.4.5 Explanation of This Mathematical Modeling
9.5 Design Examples of This Theory
9.5.1 Buck Converter
9.5.2 Super-Lift Luo-Converter
9.6 Summary
Bibliography
10. Multiple-Quadrant Operating Luo-Converters
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Circuit Explanation
10.2.1 Mode A
10.2.2 Mode B
10.2.3 Mode C
10.2.4 Mode D
10.2.5 Summary
10.3 Mode A (Quadrant I Operation)
10.3.1 Circuit Description
10.3.2 Variations of Currents and Voltages
10.3.3 Discontinuous Region
10.4 Mode B (Quadrant II Operation)
10.4.1 Circuit Description
10.4.2 Variations of Currents and Voltages
10.4.3 Discontinuous Region
10.5 Mode C (Quadrant III Operation)
10.5.1 Circuit Description
10.5.2 Variations of Currents and Voltages
10.5.3 Discontinuous Region
10.6 Mode D (Quadrant IV Operation)
10.6.1 Circuit Description
10.6.2 Variations of Currents and Voltages
10.6.3 Discontinuous Region
10.7 Simulation Results
10.8 Experimental Results
10.9 Discussion
10.9.1 Discontinuous Conduction Mode
10.9.2 Comparison with the Double-Output Luo-Converter
10.9.3 Conduction Duty k
10.9.4 Switching Frequency f
Bibliography
11. Switched-Component Converters
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Two-Quadrant SC DC/DC Converter
11.2.1 Circuit Description
11.2.1.1 Mode A
11.2.1.2 Mode B
11.2.2 Mode A (Quadrant I Operation)
11.2.3 Mode B (Quadrant II Operation)
11.2.4 Experimental Results
11.2.5 Discussion
11.2.5.1 Efficiency
11.2.5.2 Conduction Duty k
11.2.5.3 Switching Frequency f
11.3 Four-Quadrant Switched-Capacitor DC/DC Luo-Converter
11.3.1 Mode A (Q
I
: Forward Motoring)
11.3.1.1 Mode A1: Condition V
1
> V
2
11.3.1.2 Mode A2: Condition V
1
< V
2
11.3.1.3 Experimental Results
11.3.2 Mode B (Q
II
: Forward Regenerative Braking)
11.3.2.1 Mode B1: Condition V
1
> V
2
11.3.2.2 Mode B2: Condition V
1
< V
2
11.3.3 Mode C (Q
III
: Reverse Motoring)
11.3.4 Mode D (Q
IV
: Reverse Regenerative Braking)
11.4 Switched-Inductor Four-Quadrant DC/DC Luo-Converter
11.4.1 Mode A (Q
I
: Forward Motoring)
11.4.1.1 Continuous Mode
11.4.1.2 Discontinuous Mode
11.4.2 Mode B (Q
II
: Forward Regenerative Braking)
11.4.2.1 Continuous Mode
11.4.2.2 Discontinuous Mode
11.4.3 Mode C (Q
III
: Reverse Motoring)
11.4.3.1 Continuous Mode
11.4.3.2 Discontinuous Mode
11.4.4 Mode D (Q
IV
: Reverse Regenerative Braking)
11.4.4.1 Continuous Mode
11.4.4.2 Discontinuous Mode
11.4.5 Experimental Results
Bibliography
12. Positive-Output Multiple-Lift Push-Pull Switched-Capacitor Luo-Converters
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Main Series
12.2.1 Elementary Circuit
12.2.2 Re-Lift Circuit
12.2.3 Triple-Lift Circuit
12.2.4 Higher-Order Lift Circuit
12.3 Additional Series
12.3.1 Elementary Additional Circuit
12.3.2 Re-Lift Additional Circuit
12.3.3 Triple-Lift Additional Circuit
12.3.4 Higher-Order Lift Additional Circuit
12.4 Enhanced Series
12.4.1 Elementary Enhanced Circuit
12.4.2 Re-Lift Enhanced Circuit
12.4.3 Triple-Lift Enhanced Circuit
12.4.4 Higher-Order Enhanced Lift Circuit
12.5 Re-Enhanced Series
12.5.1 Elementary Re-Enhanced Circuit
12.5.2 Re-Lift Re-Enhanced Circuit
12.5.3 Triple-Lift Re-Enhanced Circuit
12.5.4 Higher-Order Lift Re-Enhanced Circuit
12.6 Multiple-Enhanced Series
12.6.1 Elementary Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
12.6.2 Re-Lift Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
12.6.3 Triple-Lift Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
12.6.4 Higher-Order Lift Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
12.7 Theoretical Analysis
12.8 Summary of This Technique
12.9 Simulation Results
12.9.1 Triple-Lift Circuit
12.9.2 Triple-Lift Additional Circuit
12.10 Experimental Result
12.10.1 Triple-Lift Circuit
12.10.2 Triple-Lift Additional Circuit
Bibliography
13. Negative-Output Multiple-Lift Push-Pull Switched-Capacitor Luo-Converters
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Main Series
13.2.1 N/O Elementary Circuit
13.2.2 N/O Re-Lift Circuit
13.2.3 N/O Triple-Lift Circuit
13.2.4 N/O Higher-Order Lift Circuit
13.3 Additional Series
13.3.1 N/O Elementary Additional Circuit
13.3.2 N/O Re-Lift Additional Circuit
13.3.3 N/O Triple-Lift Additional Circuit
13.3.4 N/O Higher-Order Lift Additional Circuit
13.4 Enhanced Series
13.4.1 N/O Elementary Enhanced Circuit
13.4.2 N/O Re-Lift Enhanced Circuit
13.4.3 N/O Triple-Lift Enhanced Circuit
13.4.4 N/O Higher-Order Lift Enhanced Circuit
13.5 Re-Enhanced Series
13.5.1 N/O Elementary Re-Enhanced Circuit
13.5.2 N/O Re-Lift Re-Enhanced Circuit
13.5.3 N/O Triple-Lift Re-Enhanced Circuit
13.5.4 N/O Higher-Order Lift Re-Enhanced Circuit
13.6 Multiple-Enhanced Series
13.6.1 N/O Elementary Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
13.6.2 N/O Re-Lift Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
13.6.3 N/O Triple-Lift Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
13.6.4 N/O Higher-Order Lift Multiple-Enhanced Circuit
13.7 Summary of This Technique
13.8 Simulation and Experimental Results
13.8.1 Simulation Results
13.8.2 Experimental Results
Bibliography
14. Multiple-Quadrant Soft-Switching Converters
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Multiple-Quadrant DC/DC ZCS Quasi-Resonant Luo-Converters
14.2.1 Mode A
14.2.1.1 Interval t = 0−t
1
14.2.1.2 Interval t = t
1
−t
2
14.2.1.3 Interval t = t
2
−f
3
14.2.1.4 Interval t = t
3
−t
4
14.2.2 Mode B
14.2.2.1 Interval t = 0−t
1
14.2.2.2 Interval t = t
1
−t
2
14.2.2.3 Interval t = t
2
−t
3
14.2.2.4 Interval t = t
3
−t
4
14.2.3 Mode C
14.2.3.1 Interval t = 0−t
1
14.2.3.2 Interval t = t
1
−t
2
14.2.3.3 Interval t = t
2
−t
3
14.2.3.4 Interval t = t
3
−t
4
14.2.4 Mode D
14.2.4.1 Interval t = 0−t
1
14.2.4.2 Interval t = t
1
−t
2
14.2.4.3 Interval t = t
2
−t
3
14.2.4.4 Interval t = t
3
−t
4
14.2.5 Experimental Results
14.3 Multiple-Quadrant DC/DC ZVS Quasi-Resonant Luo-Converters
14.3.1 Mode A
14.3.1.1 Interval t = 0−t
1
14.3.1.2 Interval t = t
1
−t
2
14.3.1.3 Interval t = t
2
−t
3
14.3.1.4 Interval t = t
3
−t
4
14.3.2 Mode B
14.3.2.1 Interval t = 0−t
1
14.3.2.2 Interval t = t
1
−t
2
14.3.2.3 Interval t = t
2
−t
3
14.3.2.4 Interval t = t
3
−t
4
14.3.3 Mode C
14.3.3.1 Interval t = 0−t
1
14.3.3.2 Interval t = t
1
−t
2
14.3.3.3 Interval t = t
2
−t
3
14.3.3.4 Interval t = t
3
−t
4
14.3.4 Mode D
14.3.4.1 Interval t = 0−t
1
14.3.4.2 Interval t = t
1
−t
2
14.3.4.3 Interval t = t
2
−t
3
14.3.4.4 Interval t = t
3
−t
4
14.3.5 Experimental Results
14.4 Multiple-Quadrant ZT DC/DC Luo-Converters
14.4.1 Mode A (Quadrant I Operation)
14.4.2 Mode B (Quadrant II Operation)
14.4.3 Mode C (Quadrant III Operation)
14.4.4 Mode D (Quadrant IV Operation)
14.4.5 Simulation Results
14.4.6 Experimental Results
14.4.7 Design Considerations
Bibliography
15. Synchronous Rectifier DC/DC Converters
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Flat Transformer Synchronous Rectifier Luo-Converter
15.2.1 Transformer Is in Magnetizing Process
15.2.2 Switching-On
15.2.3 Transformer Is in Demagnetizing Process
15.2.4 Switching-Off
15.2.5 Summary
15.3 Active-Clamped Synchronous Rectifier Luo-Converter
15.3.1 Transformer Is in Magnetizing Process
15.3.2 Switching-On
15.3.3 Transformer Is in Demagnetizing Process
15.3.4 Switching-Off
15.3.5 Summary
15.4 Double-Current Synchronous Rectifier Luo-Converter
15.4.1 Transformer Is in Magnetizing Process
15.4.2 Switching-On
15.4.3 Transformer Is in Demagnetizing Process
15.4.4 Switching-Off
15.4.5 Summary
15.5 Zero-Current-Switching Synchronous Rectifier Luo-Converter
15.5.1 Transformer Is in Magnetizing Process
15.5.2 Resonant Period
15.5.3 Transformer Is in Demagnetizing Process
15.5.4 Switching-Off
15.5.5 Summary
15.6 Zero-Voltage-Switching Synchronous Rectifier Luo-Converter
15.6.1 Transformer Is in Magnetizing Process
15.6.2 Resonant Period
15.6.3 Transformer Is in Demagnetizing Process
15.6.4 Switching-Off
15.6.5 Summary
Bibliography
16. Multiple-Energy-Storage-Element Resonant Power Converters
16.1 Introduction
16.1.1 Two-Element RPC
16.1.2 Three-Element RPC
16.1.3 Four-Element RPC
16.2 Bipolar Current and Voltage Sources
16.2.1 Bipolar Voltage Source
16.2.1.1 Two-Voltage Source Circuit
16.2.1.2 One-Voltage Source Circuit
16.2.2 Bipolar Current Source
16.2.2.1 Two-Voltage Source Circuit
16.2.2.2 One-Voltage Source Circuit
16.3 Two-Element RPC Analysis
16.3.1 Input Impedance
16.3.2 Current Transfer Gain
16.3.3 Operation Analysis
16.3.4 Simulation Results
16.3.5 Experimental Results
Bibliography
17. Π-CLL Current Source Resonant Inverter
17.1 Introduction
17.1.1 Pump Circuits
17.1.2 Current Source
17.1.3 Resonant Circuit
17.1.4 Load
17.1.5 Summary
17.2 Mathematical Analysis
17.2.1 Input Impedance
17.2.2 Components’ Voltages and Currents
17.2.3 Simplified Impedance and Current Gain
17.2.4 Power Transfer Efficiency
17.3 Simulation Results
17.4 Discussion
17.4.1 Function of the Π-CLL Circuit
17.4.2 Applying Frequency to This Π-CLL CSRI
17.4.3 Explanation of g > 1
17.4.4 DC Current Component Remaining
17.4.5 Efficiency
Bibliography
18. Cascade Double Γ-CL Current Source Resonant Inverter
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Mathematical Analysis
18.2.1 Input Impedance
18.2.2 Components’ Voltages and Currents
18.2.3 Simplified Impedance and Current Gain
18.2.4 Power Transfer Efficiency
18.3 Simulation Result
18.3.1 β = 1, f = 33.9 kHz, and T = 29.5 μs
18.3.2 β = 1.4142, f = 48.0 kHz, and T = 20.83 μs
18.3.3 β = 1.59, f = 54 kHz, and T = 18.52 μs
18.4 Experimental Result
18.5 Discussion
18.5.1 Function of the Double Γ-CL Circuit
18.5.2 Applying Frequency to This Double Γ-CL CSRI
18.5.3 Explanation of g > 1
Bibliography
19. Cascade Reverse Double Γ-LC Resonant Power Converter
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Steady-State Analysis of Cascade Reverse Double Γ-LC RPC
19.2.1 Topology and Circuit Description
19.2.2 Classical Analysis on AC Side
19.2.2.1 Basic Operating Principles
19.2.2.2 Equivalent Load Resistance
19.2.2.3 Equivalent AC Circuit and Transfer Functions
19.2.2.4 Analysis of Voltage Transfer Gain and the Input Impedance
19.2.3 Simulation and Experiment Results
19.2.3.1 Simulation Studies
19.2.3.2 Experimental Results
19.3 Resonance Operation and Modeling
19.3.1 Operating Principle, Operating Modes, and Equivalent Circuits
19.3.2 State-Space Analysis
19.4 Small-Signal Modeling of Cascade Reverse Double Γ-LC RPC
19.4.1 Small-Signal Modeling Analysis
19.4.1.1 Model Diagram
19.4.1.2 Nonlinear State Equation
19.4.1.3 Harmonic Approximation
19.4.1.4 Extended Describing Function
19.4.1.5 Harmonic Balance
19.4.1.6 Perturbation and Linearization
19.4.1.7 Equivalent Circuit Model
19.4.2 Closed-Loop Control System Design
19.5 Discussion
19.5.1 Characteristics of Variable-Parameter Resonant Converter
19.5.2 DCM
Appendix: Parameters Used in Small-Signal Modeling
Bibliography
20. DC Energy Sources for DC/DC Converters
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Single-Phase Half-Wave Diode Rectifier
20.2.1 Resistive Load
20.2.2 Single-Phase Half-Wave Rectifier with a Capacitive Filter
20.2.3 Inductive Load
20.2.4 Pure Inductive Load
20.2.5 Back EMF plus Resistor Load
20.2.6 Back EMF plus Inductor Load
20.3 Single-Phase Bridge Diode Rectifier
20.3.1 Resistive Load
20.3.2 Back EMF Load
20.3.3 R-C Load
20.4 Three-Phase Half-Bridge Diode Rectifier
20.4.1 Resistive Load
20.4.2 Back EMF Load (0.5 √2V
in
< E √2V
in
)
20.4.3 Back EMF Load (E < 0.5 √2V
in
)
20.5 Three-Phase Full-Bridge Diode Rectifier with Resistive Load
20.6 Thyristor Rectifiers
20.6.1 Single-Phase Half-Wave Rectifier with Resistive Load
20.6.2 Single-Phase Half-Wave Thyristor Rectifier with Inductive Load
20.6.3 Single-Phase Half-Wave Thyristor Rectifier with Pure Inductive Load
20.6.4 Single-Phase Half-Wave Rectifier with Back EMF plus Resistive Load
20.6.5 Single-Phase Half-Wave Rectifier with Back EMF plus Inductive Load
20.6.6 Single-Phase Half-Wave Rectifier with Back EMF Plus Pure Inductor
20.6.7 Single-Phase Full-Wave Semicontrolled Rectifier with Inductive Load
20.6.8 Single-Phase Full-Controlled Rectifier with Inductive Load
20.6.9 Three-Phase Half-Wave Rectifier with Resistive Load
20.6.10 Three-Phase Half-Wave Thyristor Rectifier with Inductive Load
20.6.11 Three-Phase Full-Wave Thyristor Rectifier with Resistive Load
20.6.12 Three-Phase Full-Wave Thyristor Rectifier with Inductive Load
Bibliography
21. Control Circuit: EMI and Application Examples of DC/DC Converters
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Luo-Resonator
21.2.1 Circuit Explanation
21.2.2 Calculation Formulae
21.2.3 Design Example
21.2.4 Discussion
21.3 EMI, EMS, and EMC
21.3.1 EMI/EMC Analysis
21.3.2 Comparison with Hard Switching and Soft Switching
21.3.3 Measuring Method and Results
21.3.4 Designing Rule to Minimize EMI/EMC
21.4 Some DC/DC Converter Applications
21.4.1 5000 V Insulation Test Bench
21.4.2 MIT 42/14 V 3 kW DC/DC Converter
21.4.3 IBM 1.8 V/200 A Power Supply
Bibliography
Index

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