EBOOK - Automotive Engine Valve Recession (R. Lewis)


Selection of volumes for publication will be based mainly upon one of the following: single higher degree theses; a series of theses on a particular engineering topic; submissions for higher doctorates; reports to sponsors of research; or comprehensive
industrial research reports. It is usual for university engineering research groups to undertake research on problems reflecting their expertise over several years. In such cases it may be appropriate to produce a comprehensive, but selective, account of the development of understanding and knowledge on the topic in a specially prepared single volume.

CONTENTS:

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Valves and seats 1
1.2 Valve failure concerns 1
1.3 Layout of the book 3
1.4 References 5
Chapter 2 Valve Operation and Design 7
2.1 Valve operation 7
2.1.1 Function 7
2.1.2 Operating systems 8
2.1.3 Dynamics 9
2.1.4 Operating stresses 12
2.1.5 Temperatures 13
2.2 Valve design 15
2.2.1 Poppet valve design 15
2.2.2 Materials 17
2.3 References 19
Chapter 3 Valve Failure 21
3.1 Introduction 21
3.2 Valve recession 21
3.2.1 Causes of valve recession 22
3.2.2 Wear characterization 26
3.2.3 Reduction of recession 28
3.3 Guttering 29
3.4 Torching 29
3.5 Effect of engine operating parameters 31
3.5.1 Temperature  31
3.5.2 Lubrication  34
3.5.3 Deposits 34
3.5.4 Rotation 34
3.6 Summary 36
3.7 References 36
Chapter 4 Analysis of Failed Components 39
4.1 Introduction 39
4.2 Valve and seat insert evaluation 39
4.2.1 Specimen details 39
4.2.2 Profile traces 40
4.2.3 Visual rating 42
4.3 Lacquer formation on inlet valves 45
4.3.1 Valve evaluation 45
4.3.2 Discussion 46
4.4 Failure of seat inserts in a 1.8 litre, DI, diesel engine 47
4.4.1 Inlet seat insert wear 48
4.4.2 Deposits 50
4.4.3 Misalignment of seat insert relative to valve guide 51
4.4.4 Inlet valve wear 51
4.5 Conclusions 52
4.6 References 53
Chapter 5 Valve and Seat Wear Testing Apparatus 55
5.1 Introduction 55
5.2 Requirements 55
5.3 Wear test methods 56
5.4 Extant valve and seat wear test rigs 56
5.5 University of Sheffield valve seat test apparatus 59
5.5.1 Hydraulic loading apparatus 60
5.5.1.1 Design 60
5.5.1.2 Test methodologies 64
5.5.1.3 Experimental parameters 66
5.5.2 Motorized cylinder head 67
5.5.2.1 Design 67
5.5.2.2 Operation 69
5.5.3 Evaluation of dynamics and loading 69
5.5.3.1 1.8 litre, IDI, diesel engine 70
5.5.3.2 Hydraulic test machine 74
5.6 References 79
Chapter 6 Experimental Studies on Valve Wear 81
6.1 Introduction 81
6.2 Investigation of wear mechanisms 81
6.2.1 Experimental details 81
6.2.1.1 Specimen details 81
6.2.1.2 Test methodologies 82
6.2.1.3 Wear evaluation 84
6.2.2 Results 84
6.2.2.1 Appearance of worn surfaces 84
6.2.2.2 Formation of wear scars 88
6.2.2.3 Comparison with engine recession data 92
Automotive Engine Valve Recession
6.2.2.4 Lubrication of valve/seat interface 93
6.2.2.5 Misalignment of valve relative to seat 94
6.2.2.6 Effect of combustion load 96
6.2.2.7 Effect of closing velocity 97
6.2.2.8 Valve rotation 100
6.2.2.9 Effect of temperature 102
6.3 Seat insert materials 103
6.3.1 Experimental details 104
6.3.1.1 Valve and seat insert materials 104
6.3.1.2 Specimen details 105
6.3.1.3 Test methodologies 105
6.3.2 Results 106
6.4 Conclusions 111
6.5 References 111
Chapter 7 Design Tools for Prediction of Valve Recession and Solving
Valve Failure Problems 113
7.1 Introduction 113
7.2 Valve recession model 113
7.2.1 Review of extant valve wear models 113
7.2.2 Development of the model 115
7.2.2.1 Frictional sliding 115
7.2.2.2 Impact 120
7.2.2.3 Final model 123
7.2.3 Implementation of the model 124
7.2.4 Model validation 127
7.2.4.1 Engine tests 127
7.2.4.2 Bench tests 129
7.3 Reducing valve recession by design  132
7.4 Solving valve/seat failure problems 132
7.5 References 136
Index 137

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