EBOOK - Chemistry and Technology of Epoxy Resins (BRYAN ELLIS)


EBOOK - Hóa học và Công nghệ của nhựa Epoxy (BRYAN ELLIS).

Epoxy resins have been commercially available for about 45 years and now have many major industrial  applications,  especially where technical advantages warrant their somewhat higher costs. The chemistry of these resins is fascinating and has attracted study by many very able scientists. The technological applications of the epoxy resins are very demanding and there are many new developments each year.

The aims of the present book are to present in a compact form both theoretical and practical information that will assist in the study, research and innovations in the field of epoxy resin science and technology. The literature on epoxy resins is so vast that it is not possible to be encyclopaedic and that is not the function of the present text. It is the editor's hope that the selection of topics discussed will provide an up-to-date survey. There is some overlap in the chapters but this is minimal and so each chapter is essentially self contained.

CONTENTS:

1  Introduction to the chemistry, synthesis, manufacture and
characterization of epoxy resins
B. ELLIS
1.1  Epoxy resins
1.2  The chemistry of the epoxy group
1.3  The synthesis and manufacture of epoxy resins
1.3.1  Synthesis of epoxy compounds
1.3.2  Epoxy resins manufactured from epichlorohydrin
1.3.3  Oxidation of unsaturated compounds
1.4  Characterization of uncured epoxy resins
1.4.1  Chemical analysis
1.4.2  Quantitative analysis
1.4.3  Molecular structure
1.4.4  Physical properties
References
2  Curing agents for epoxy resins
W.R. ASHCROFf
2.1  Introduction
2.2  Nitrogen-containing curing agents
2.2.1  Aliphatic amines and derivatives
2.2.2  Cycloaliphatic polyamines and derivatives
2.2.3  Aromatic polyamines and derivatives
2.2.4  Catalysts and co-curing agents
2.2.5  Hydrazine and hydrazides
2.3  Oxygen-containing curing agents
2.3.1  Carboxylic acids and anhydrides
2.3.2  Phenol formaldehyde resins
2.3.3  Amino formaldehyde resins
2.4  Sulphur-containing curing agents
2.4.1  Polysulphides
2.4.2  Polymercaptans
2.5  Miscellaneous curing agent types
2.5.1  Amine-boron trihalide complexes
2.5.2  Quaternary phosphonium salts
2.5.3  Cationic salts
2.6  Summary
References
3  The kinetics of cure and network formation
B. ELLIS
3.1  Cure of epoxy resins
3.2  Gelation, network structure and glass transition temperature
3.2.1  Branching theory  75
3.2.2  The glass transition  81
3.3  Techniques for monitoring cure  83
3.3.1  Monitoring cure  83
3.3.2  Direct assay of the concentration of reactive groups  84
3.3.3  Thermal analysis  86
3.3.4  Rheological changes during cure  87
3.4  Kinetics of cure  89
3.4.1  Introduction  89
3.4.2  Amine-curing agents  90
3.4.3  Carboxylic acid anhydrides  98
3.4.4  Diffusion control  99
3.5  Effect of cure on mechanical and related properties  102
3.5.1  Introduction  102
3.5.2  Glassy moduli  104
3.5.3  Stress-strain curves and visco-elastic behaviour  106
3.5.4  Visco-elastic properties  109
3.5.5  Physical ageing  110
References  113
4  Additives and modifiers for epoxy resins  117
S.J. SHAW
4.1  Introduction  117
4.2  Diluents  117
4.2.1  Non-reactive diluents  118
4.2.2  Reactive diluents  118
4.3  Fillers  120
4.3.1  Physical/mechanical properties  121
4.3.2  Thermal characteristics  122
4.3.3  Shrinkage  124
4.3.4  Electrical conductivity  124
4.3.5  Viscosity  124
4.3.6  Toughness  125
4.4  Resinous modifiers  126
4.5  Flexibilisers/plasticising additives  128
4.5.1  Plasticisers  128
4.5.2  Reactive flexibilising additives  128
4.6  Elastomeric modification  131
4.6.1  Types of elastomeric modifiers  131
4.6.2  Compatibility and morphology  132
4.6.3  Toughening mechanisms  137
4.6.4  The hybrid modification approach  138
4.7  Thermoplastic modification  138
4.8  Miscellaneous additives  140
References  142
5  Fracture behaviour of epoxy resins  144
W.J. CANTWELL and H.H. KAUSCH
5.1  Introduction  144
5.2  Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM)  145
5.2.1  The G approach  146
5.2.2  The K approach  149
5.2.3  Crack opening displacement  150
5.3  Deformation mechanisms  150
CONTENTS  ix
5.4  Modes of crack propagation  152
5.4.1  Stable brittle propagation  153
5.4.2  Unstable brittle propagation  154
5.4.3  Stable ductile propagation  156
5.5  Effect of test conditions  156
5.5.1  Temperature  156
5.5.2  Loading rate  158
5.6  Microstructural effects  159
5.7  Fractography of epoxy resins  161
5.8  Toughening strategies for epoxy resins  165
5.8.1  Mineral filler-modified epoxies  165
5.8.2  Thermoplastic-modified epoxies  166
5.8.3  Rubber-modified epoxies  167
5.8.4  Effect of particle size and volume fraction  169
5.8.5  Hybrid systems  171
5.9  Conclusions  172
References  172
6  Electrical properties of epoxy resins  175
G.P. JOHARI
6.1  Introduction  175
6.2  Physical changes during the epoxy curing  176
6.3  Theoretical formalism for electrical properties  177
6.4  Dielectric effects of sol-gel-glass conversion  182
6.5  Ionic conductivity and sol-gel conversion  189
6.6  Time and temperature evolution of the dielectric properties  191
6.7  Chemical kinetics and dielectric behaviour  194
6.8  Curing and the high-frequency relaxation process  196
6.9  Ageing effects on electrical properties  200
6.10 Electrical applications of epoxy resins  203
References  204
7  Epoxy resin adhesives  206
S.J. SHAW
7.1  Introduction  206
7.2  Theories of adhesion and wetting phenomena  207
7.2.1  Theories of adhesion  208
7.2.2  Wetting  210
7.3  Substrates and surface pretreatments  213
7.3.1  Solvent cleaning  214
7.3.2  Mechanical abrasion  214
7.3.3  Chemical pretreatment  215
7.3.4  Primers  217
7.4  Methods oftest  218
7.4.1  Conventional test techniques  219
7.4.2  Fracture mechanics approach  221
7.4.3  Environmental testing  222
7.5  Epoxy adhesive formulation  225
7.6  Properties of adhesive joints  228
7.6.1  Bulk properties of epoxy adhesive  229
7.6.2  Adhesive joint mechanical properties  233
7.7  Environmental effects  238
7.7.1  Introduction  238
7.7.2  Moisture-related effects  239
x  CONTENTS
7.7.3  Failure mechanisms
7.7.4  Approaches to improved durability
7.7.5  Other hostile environments
7.8  Applications
8  Composite materials
F.R. JONES
8.1  Introduction  256
8.2  Fibre reinforcements  256
8.2.1  Manufacture of carbon fibres from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursors  259
8.2.2  Aramid fibres  263
8.2.3  Glass fibres  265
8.3  Fabrication of composites  267
8.3.1  The reinforcement form  267
8.3.2  Prepreg mouldings  267
8.3.3  Matrices for fibre composites  269
8.4  Mechanical properties of unidirectional laminates  276
8.4.1  Longitudinal modulus, E,  276
8.4.2  Longitudinal tensile strength, alll  277
8.4.3  Transverse modulus, Et  280
8.4.4  Transverse strength, atll  281
8.4.5  Off-axis properties  283
8.5  Failure process in laminates  284
8.5.1  Crossplylaminates  284
8.5.2  Constraint cracking  287
8.5.3  Epoxy resin matrix failure strain  287
8.5.4  Thermal strains in crossply composites  287
8.5.5  Poisson-generated stresses and longitudinal splitting  289
8.5.6  Angle ply laminates  289
8.5.7  Discontinuous fibre composites  290
8.6  Effect of moisture on the performance of epoxy resins  290
8.6.1  Moisture absorption kinetics  291
8.6.2  Effect of resin structure  293
8.6.3  Effect of moisture on thermal residual strains  295
8.6.4  The combined effect of humidity and thermal excursions  296
8.6.5  Thermal spiking  297
8.7  Selection principles  298
8.8  Conclusions  298
8.9  Glossary of symbols  299
References  300
9  Coatings and other applications of epoxy resins
X.M. CHEN and B. ELLIS
9.1  Introduction
9.2  Surface coatings
9.2.1  Introduction
9.2.2  Surface preparation and primer
9.2.3  Solution coatings
9.2.4  Dip coats
9.2.5  Epoxy emulsions and other water-based coatings
9.2.6  Powder coatings
9.3  Industrial and related applications
9.3.1  Tooling
9.3.2  Civil engineering
9.3.3  Moulding compounds
9.3.4  Embedding
9.3.5  Miscellaneous

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