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Jun 6, 2017

EBOOK - Flight Vehicle Aerodynamics (Mark Drela)


EBOOK - Động cơ máy bay - Tác giả: Mark Drela (304 Trang).

This book is intended as a general reference for the physics, concepts, theories, and models underlying the discipline of aerodynamics. An overarching theme is the technique of velocity field representation and modeling via source and vorticity fields, and via their sheet, filament, or point-singularity idealizations.
These models provide an intuitive feel for aerodynamic flow behavior, and are also the basis of aerodynamic force analysis, drag decomposition, flow interference estimation, wind tunnel corrections, computational methods, and many other important applications.
This book covers some topics in depth, while offering introductions or summaries of others. In particular, Chapters 3,4 on Boundary Layers, Chapter 7 on Unsteady Aerodynamics, and Chapter 9 on Flight Dynamics are intended as introductions and overviews of those topics, which deserve to be properly treated in separate dedicated texts. Similarly, there are only glancing mentions of the related topic of Propulsion, which is its own discipline.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and computational methods in general are indispensable for today’s practicing aerodynamicist. Hence a few computational methods are described here, primarily the vortex lattice and panel methods which are based on the source and vorticity flow-field representation. The main goal is to provide improved understanding of the concepts and physical models which underlie such methods.
Most of this book is based on the lecture notes, handouts, and reference materials which have been developed for the courseFlight Vehicle Aerodynamics(course number 16.110) taught by the author at MIT’s Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. This course is intended for first-year graduate students, but has also attracted a significant number of advanced undergraduates.

1 Physics of Aerodynamic Flows 1
1.1 Atmospheric Properties . . . .................................. 1
1.2 Ideal-Gas Thermodynamic Relations . . ............................ 2
1.3 ConservationLaws ....................................... 3
1.3.1 Mass, momentum, energy fluxes ............................ 4
1.3.2 Volume forces, work rate, heating ........................... 4
1.3.3 Surface forces, work rate, heating ........................... 5
1.3.4 Integralconservationlaws ............................... 6
1.4 DifferentialConservationEquations .............................. 7
1.4.1 Divergenceforms.................................... 7
1.4.2 Convectiveforms.................................... 8
1.4.3 Surface boundary conditions . . ............................ 8
1.5 UnitsandParameters ...................................... 9
1.5.1 Unitsystems ...................................... 9
1.5.2 Non-dimensionalization ................................ 10
1.5.3 Unsteady-flowparameters ............................... 10
1.5.4 High Reynolds number flows . ............................ 11
1.5.5 Standardcoefficients .................................. 11
1.6 AdiabaticFlows ........................................ 12
1.7 IsentropicFlows......................................... 13
1.7.1 Requirementsforisentropy............................... 13
1.7.2 Isentropicrelations................................... 14
1.7.3 Speed of sound . . . .................................. 15
1.7.4 Total pressure and density . . . ............................ 15
1.8 Low Speed and Incompressible Flows . ............................ 16
1.9 Vorticity Transport and Irrotationality . ............................ 17
1.9.1 Helmholtz vorticity transport equation . . ....................... 17
1.9.2 Croccorelation..................................... 19
1.9.3 Bernoulliequation ................................... 19
1.10 Aerodynamic Flow Categories ................................. 21
2 Flow-Field Modeling 23
2.1 Vector Field Representation Methods . . ............................ 23
2.2 Velocity / Vorticity-Source Duality . . . ............................ 24
2.3 Aerodynamic Modeling – Vorticity and Source Lumping . . . ................ 25
2.3.1 Sheets.......................................... 26
2.3.2 Lines .......................................... 26
2.3.3 Points.......................................... 27
2.3.4 2Dforms ........................................ 27
2.4 3DVortexSheetStrengthDivergenceConstraint ....................... 28
2.5 Equivalence of Vortex and Doublet Sheets ........................... 29
2.6 Integral Velocity / Vorticity-Source Relations . . ....................... 31
2.7 Velocity-PotentialIntegrals................................... 32
2.7.1 3Dpotentials ...................................... 32
2.7.2 2Dpotentials ...................................... 32
2.8 PhysicalRequirements ..................................... 33
2.8.1 Sources in incompressible flow ............................ 34
2.8.2 Sources in compressible flow . . ............................ 34
2.8.3 Vorticity
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