Oct 6, 2017

EBOOK - Advanced Thermodynamics for Engineers (D. Winterbone & Ali Turan)

EBOOK - Nhiệt động học nâng cao cho các kỹ sư (D. Winterbone & Ali Turan) - 399 Trang.

Advanced Thermodynamics for Engineers, Second Edition introduces the basic concepts of thermodynamics and applies them to a wide range of technologies. Authors Desmond Winterbone and Ali Turan also include a detailed study of combustion to show how the chemical energy in a fuel is converted into thermal energy and emissions; analyze fuel cells to give an understanding of the direct conversion of chemical energy to electrical power; and provide a study of property relationships to enable more sophisticated analyses to be made of irreversible thermodynamics, allowing for new ways of efficiently covering energy to power (e.g. solar energy, fuel cells). Worked examples are included in most of the chapters, followed by exercises with solutions. By developing thermodynamics from an explicitly equilibrium perspective and showing how all systems attempt to reach equilibrium (and the effects of these systems when they cannot), Advanced Thermodynamics for Engineers, Second Edition provides unparalleled insight into converting any form of energy into power. The theories and applications of this text are invaluable to students and professional engineers of all disciplines.

Table of Contents
Preface – First Edition
Preface – Second Edition
Structure of the Book
Chapter 1. Introduction and Revision
1.1. Thermodynamics
1.2. Definitions
1.3. Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law
1.4. Temperature Scales
1.5. Interactions between Systems and Surroundings
1.6. Concluding Remarks
1.7. Problems
Chapter 2. The Second Law and Equilibrium
2.1. Thermal Efficiency
2.2. Heat Engine
2.3. Second Law of Thermodynamics
2.4. The Concept of the Heat Engine: Derived by Analogy with a Hydraulic Device
2.5. The Absolute Temperature Scale
2.6. Entropy
2.7. Representation of Heat Engines
2.8. Reversibility and Irreversibility (first corollary of second law)
2.9. Equilibrium
2.10. Helmholtz Energy (Helmholtz Function)
2.11. Gibbs Energy
2.12. Gibbs Energy and Phases
2.13. Examples of Different Forms of Equilibrium Met in Thermodynamics
2.14. Concluding Remarks
2.15. Problems
Chapter 3. Engine Cycles and their Efficiencies
3.1. Heat Engines
3.2. Air-Standard Cycles
3.3. General Comments on Efficiencies
3.4. Reversed Heat Engines
3.5. Concluding Remarks
3.6. Problems
Chapter 4. Availability and Exergy
4.1. Displacement Work
4.2. Availability
4.3. Examples
4.4. Available and Non-available Energy
4.5. Irreversibility
4.6. Graphical Representation of Available Energy and Irreversibility
4.7. Availability Balance for a Closed System
4.8. Availability Balance for an Open System
4.9. Exergy
4.10. The Variation of Flow Exergy for a Perfect Gas
4.11. Concluding Remarks
4.12. Problems
Chapter 5. Rational Efficiency of Power Plant
5.1. The Influence of Fuel Properties on Thermal Efficiency
5.2. Rational Efficiency
5.3. Rankine Cycle
5.4. Examples
5.5. Concluding Remarks
5.6. Problems
Chapter 6. Finite Time (or Endoreversible) Thermodynamics
6.1. General Considerations
6.2. Efficiency at Maximum Power
6.3. Efficiency of Combined Cycle Internally Reversible Heat Engines when Producing Maximum Power Output
6.4. Practical Situations
6.5. More Complex Example of the Use of FTT
6.6. Concluding Remarks
6.7. Problems
Chapter 7. General Thermodynamic Relationships: for Single Component Systems or Systems of Constant Composition
7.1. The Maxwell Relationships
7.2. Uses of the Thermodynamic Relationships
7.3. Tds Relationships
7.4. Relationships between Specific Heat Capacities
7.5. The Clausius–Clapeyron Equation
7.6. Concluding Remarks
7.7. Problems
Chapter 8. Equations of State
8.1. Ideal Gas Law
8.2. Van der Waals Equation of State
8.3. Law of Corresponding States
8.4. Isotherms or Isobars in the Two-phase Region
8.5. Concluding Remarks
8.6. Problems
Chapter 9. Thermodynamic Properties of Ideal Gases and Ideal Gas Mixtures of Constant Composition
9.1. Molecular Weights
9.2. State Equation for Ideal Gases
9.3. Tables of u(T) and h(T) Against T
9.4. Mixtures of Ideal Gases
9.5. Entropy of Mixtures
9.6. Concluding Remarks
9.7. Problems
Chapter 10. Thermodynamics of Combustion
10.1. Simple Chemistry
10.2. Combustion of Simple Hydrocarbon Fuels
10.3. Heats of Formation and Heats of Reaction
10.4. Application of the Energy Equation to the Combustion Process – a Macroscopic Approach
10.5. Combustion Processes
10.6. Examples
10.7. Concluding Remarks
10.8. Problems
Chapter 11. Chemistry of Combustion
11.1. Bond Energies and Heat of Formation
11.2. Energy of Formation
11.3. Enthalpy of Reaction
11.4. Concluding Remarks
Chapter 12. Chemical Equilibrium and Dissociation
12.1. Gibbs Energy
12.2. Chemical Potential, μ
12.3. Stoichiometry
12.4. Dissociation
12.5. Calculation of Chemical Equilibrium and the Law of Mass Action
12.6. Variation of Gibbs Energy with Composition
12.7. Examples of Significance of Kp
12.8. The Van't Hoff Relationship between Equilibrium Constant and Heat of Reaction
12.9. The Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Degree of Dissociation
12.10. Dissociation Calculations for the Evaluation of Nitric Oxide
12.11. Dissociation Problems with Two, or More, Degrees of Dissociation
12.12. Concluding Remarks
12.13. Problems
Chapter 13. Effect of Dissociation on Combustion Parameters
13.1. Calculation of Combustion Both with and without Dissociation
13.2. The Basic Reactions
13.3. The Effect of Dissociation on Peak Pressure
13.4. The Effect of Dissociation on Peak Temperature
13.5. The Effect of Dissociation on the Composition of the Products
13.6. The Effect of Fuel on Composition of the Products
13.7. The Formation of Oxides of Nitrogen
13.8. Concluding Remarks
Chapter 14. Chemical Kinetics
14.1. Introduction
14.2. Reaction Rates
14.3. Rate Constant for Reaction, k
14.4. Chemical Kinetics of NO
14.5. Other Kinetics-Controlled Pollutants
14.6. The Effect of Pollutants Formed Through Chemical Kinetics
14.7. Concluding Remarks
14.8. Problems
Chapter 15. Combustion and Flames
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Thermodynamics of Combustion
15.3. Explosion Limits
15.4. Flames
15.5. Concluding Remarks
15.6. Problems
Chapter 16. Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Further Considerations of Basic Engine Cycles
16.3. Spark-Ignition Engines
16.4. Diesel (Compression Ignition) Engines
16.5. Friction in Reciprocating Engines
16.6. Simulation of Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines
16.7. Concluding Remarks
16.8. Problems
Chapter 17. Gas Turbines
17.1. The Gas Turbine Cycle
17.2. Simple Gas Turbine Cycle Analysis
17.3. Aircraft Gas Turbines
17.4. Combustion in Gas Turbines
17.5. Concluding Remarks
17.6. Problems
Chapter 18. Liquefaction of Gases
18.1. Liquefaction by Cooling – Method (i)
18.2. Liquefaction by Expansion – Method (ii)
18.3. Concluding Remarks
18.4. Problems
Chapter 19. Pinch Technology
19.1. Heat Transfer Network without a Pinch Problem
19.2. Step 1: Temperature Intervals
19.3. Step 2: Interval Heat Balances
19.4. Heat Transfer Network with a Pinch Point
19.5. Step 3: Heat Cascading
19.6. Problems
Chapter 20. Irreversible Thermodynamics
20.1. Definition of Irreversible or Steady-State Thermodynamics
20.2. Entropy Flow and Entropy Production
20.3. Thermodynamic Forces and Thermodynamic Velocities
20.4. Onsager's Reciprocal Relation
20.5. The Calculation of Entropy Production or Entropy Flow
20.6. Thermoelectricity – The Application of Irreversible Thermodynamics to a Thermocouple
20.7. Diffusion and Heat Transfer
20.8. Concluding Remarks
20.9. Problems
Chapter 21. Fuel Cells
21.1. Types of Fuel Cells
21.2. Theory of Fuel Cells
21.3. Efficiency of a Fuel Cell
21.4. Thermodynamics of Cells Working in Steady State
21.5. Losses in Fuel Cells
21.6. Sources of Hydrogen for Fuel Cells
21.7. Concluding Remarks
21.8. Problems


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