May 21, 2017

EBOOK - Exploring the Solar Wind (Marian Lazar)

EBOOK - Khám phá năng lượng gió và năng lượng mặt trời - Tác giả: Marian Lazar (475 Trang).

The solar wind is a continuous outward stream of energetic charged particles from the Sun’s hot corona. The high temperature in the solar corona measures more than one million degrees causing ionization of the hydrogen and formation of a hot plasma of protons and electrons. The solar plasma is  so hot that it breaks free of the Sun’s gravitational force and blows away from the surface in all directions giving rise to the solar wind. The intensity of the solar wind changes constantly, and when it gets stronger, we see more brighter aurora on Earth. Terrestrial magnetic field is compressed by the solar wind and distorted into a comet-shaped cavity known as the magnetosphere.
The magnetosphere protects  the Earth as it deflects the solar wind streams, which would otherwise blow the  atmosphere away. However, the energetic solar flares and coronal mass ejections during times of an active Sun can drastically affect the solar wind and space weather conditions, and, implicitly, the advanced space technology we have become so dependent upon in our everyday lives. Understanding the changing solar wind and its effects on Earth and our life is therefore one of the most challenging tasks facing space scientists today, and many space exploration missions focus on the solar wind and its interactions with Earth.
This book consists of a selection of original papers of the leading scientists in the fields of Space and Planetary Physics, Solar and Space Plasma Physics with important contributions to the theory, modeling and experimental techniques of the solar wind exploration. All chapters of this book were invited with the aim of providing a comprehensive view of the current knowledge of the solar wind formation and elemental composition, the interplane- tary dynamical evolution and acceleration of the charged plasma particles, and the guiding magnetic field that connects to the magnetospheric field lines and adjusts the effects of the solar wind on Earth.


Preface IX
Part 1  The Solar Wind: Overview of the Fundamentals  1
Chapter 1  Solar Wind Laws Valid for any Phase of a Solar Cycle  3
V.G. Eselevich
Chapter 2  Solar Wind: Origin, Properties and Impact on Earth  29
U.L. Visakh Kumar and P.J. Kurian
Part 2  The Solar Wind Elemental Compostition  47
Chapter 3  Solar Wind Composition Associated with the Solar Activity  49
X. Wang, B. Klecker and P. Wurz
Chapter 4  Solar Wind and Solar System  Matter After Mission Genesis  69
Kurt Marti and Peter Bochsler
Chapter 5  Measuring the Isotopic  Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases  93
Alex Meshik, Charles Hohenberg,  Olga Pravdivtseva and Donald Burnett
Chapter 6  Solar Wind Noble Gases in Micrometeorites  121
Takahito Osawa
Part 3  The Solar Wind Dynamics: From Large to Small Scales  141
Chapter 7  Multifractal Turbulence in the Heliosphere  143
Wiesław M. Macek
Chapter 8  Field-Aligned Current  Mechanisms of Prominence Destabilization  169
Petko Nenovski
Chapter 9  Small Scale Processes in the Solar Wind  195
Antonella Greco, Francesco Valentini and Sergio Servidio
Chapter 10  Kinetic Models of Solar Wind Electrons, Protons and Heavy Ions  221
Viviane Pierrard
Chapter 11  Suprathermal Particle Populations  in the Solar Wind and Corona  241
M. Lazar, R. Schlickeiser and S. Poedts Part 4  The Solar Wind Magnetic Field Powered by the Sun
Chapter 12  Impact of the Large-Scale Solar Magnetic  Field on the Solar Corona and Solar Wind
A.G. Tlatov and B.P. Filippov
Chapter 13  Variability of Low Energy  Cosmic Rays Near Earth  285
Karel Kudela
Part 5  The Interaction of the  Solar Wind with the Magnetosphere  315
Chapter 14  Impact of Solar Wind on the Earth  Magnetosphere: Recent Progress in the  Modeling of Ring Current and Radiation Belts   317
Natalia Buzulukova, Mei-Ching Fok and Alex Glocer
Chapter 15  Ground-Based Monitoring  of the Solar Wind Geoefficiency  337
Oleg Troshichev
Chapter 16  The Polar Cap PC Indices: Relations to  Solar Wind and Global Disturbances  357
Peter Stauning
Chapter 17  Sudden Impulses in the Magnetosphere and at Ground  399
U. Villante and M. Piersanti
Chapter 18  Turbulence in the Magnetosheath and the Problem  of Plasma Penetration Inside the Magnetosphere  417
Elizaveta E. Antonova, Maria S. Pulinets, Maria O. Riazantseva, Svetlana S. Znatkova, Igor P. Kirpichev and Marina V. Stepanova Chapter 19  Solar Wind Sails  439
Ikkoh Funaki and Hiroshi Yamakawa.



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