EBOOK - Cabling The Complete Guide to Network Wiring 2nd Edition (David Groth & Jim McBee)


EBOOK - Hướng dẫn kết nối cáp điện cho mạng điện (David Groth & Jim McBee) - 866 Trang.

This book has been a long time in the making. First and foremost, I would like to acknowledge my coauthor, Jim McBee, for his excellent work on this project. He should be proud of his efforts, and it shows in the quality of this book. Also, we would like to acknowledge the other behind-the-scenes people that helped to make this book, starting with Dan Whiting of Border States Electric Supply in Fargo, ND, for all the reference material and pictures he and his company provided. His expertise was invaluable in the making of this book. Thanks, Dan! We would also like to thank photographer Steve Sillers for taking many of the pictures throughout this book. This book would not exist without Sybex Acquisitions and Developmental Editor Maureen Adams. Thanks for bringing Jim and me together and for managing this project. Additionally, I would like to thank Editor Joe Webb for editing this book and Production Editor Liz Burke for managing its production. Also, I would like to recognize the rest of the Sybex staff for all their hard work on this book, including (but not limited to) Eric Houts and Tony Jonick, the graphic illustrators; Owen Wolfson and Amy Changar, for their work on the color insert; all of the proofreaders (Laurie O’Connell, Nancy Riddiough, Suzanne Stein, Emily Hsuan, and Yariv Rabinovitch); the indexer Ted Laux; and electronic publishing specialist Franz Baumhackl, who spent time and effort making the book look good.

CONTENTS:

PART I Cabling Technology and Components
1 Introduction to Data Cabling  3
The Golden Rules of Data Cabling 5
The Importance of Reliable Cabling 6
The Cost of Poor Cabling 6
Is the Cabling to Blame? 7
You’ve Come a Long Way, Baby: The Legacy of Proprietary Cabling
Systems 8
Proprietary Cabling Is a Thing of the Past 9
The Need for a Comprehensive Standard 10
Cabling and the Need for Speed 10
Types of Communications Media 12
Twisted-Pair Cable 12
Optical-Fiber Cable 19
Coaxial Cable 23
Cable Design 25
Plenum 26
Riser 29
General Purpose 30
Limited Use 30
Cable Jackets 30
Cable Markings 32
Wire Insulation 34
Insulation Colors 35
Twists 38
Wire Gauge 39
Solid Conductors versus Stranded Conductors 40
Cable Length 41
Data Communications 101 43
Bandwidth, Frequency, and Data Rate 43
The Secret Ingredient: Encoding and Multipair
Simultaneous Send and Receive 46
What a Difference a dB Makes! 48
Digging a Little Deeper into Decibels 48
Applying Knowledge of Decibels 52
Speed Bumps: What Slows Down Your Data 52
Hindrances to High-Speed Data Transfer 53
Attenuation (Loss of Signal) 55
Noise (Signal Interference) 57
Equal-Level Far-End Crosstalk (ELFEXT) 60
Pair-to-Pair Crosstalk 61
Power-Sum Crosstalk 62
External Interference 62
Attenuation-to-Crosstalk Ratio (ACR) 64
Propagation Delay 66
Delay Skew 66
The Future of Cabling Performance 67
2 Cabling Specifications and Standards 69
Structured Cabling and Standardization 70
Standards and Specifying Organizations 73
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 74
Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) 75
Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) 75
Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA) 77
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 77
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) 78
Federal Communications Commission 78
Underwriters Laboratories (UL) 78
International Organization for Standardizations (ISO) 78
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 79
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 80
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 80
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) 80
CSA International (CSA) 81
ATM Forum 82
European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) 82
Contents
Building Industry Consulting Services International (BICSI) 82
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 83
ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A Cabling Standard 83
ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A Purpose and Scope 85
Subsystems of a Structured Cabling System 87
Entrance Facility 87
Equipment Room 89
Backbone Cabling 90
Telecommunications Closets 93
Horizontal Cabling 94
Work Area 103
Media and Connecting Hardware Performance 104
100-Ohm Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cabling 104
150-Ohm Shielded Twisted-Pair Cabling 109
Optical-Fiber Cabling 112
Telecommunications Systems Bulletins 115
TSB-67 115
TSB-95 117
TSB-75 117
ANSI/TIA/EIA-569-A 118
Entrance Facility 120
Main-Terminal Space 121
Equipment Room 121
Telecommunications Closets 122
Horizontal Pathways 123
Backbone Pathways 125
Work Areas 126
ANSI/TIA/EIA-607 127
ANSI/TIA/EIA-570-A 128
Other TIA/EIA Standards and Bulletins 129
ISO/IEC 11801 131
Classification of Applications and Links 133
Anixter Cable Performance Levels Program 134
Anixter Levels: Looking Forward 136
What About Components? 137
Other Cabling Technologies 137
The IBM Cabling System 138
IBM Cable Types 138
IBM Data Connector 140
Lucent SYSTIMAX SCS Cabling System 141
Digital Equipment Corporation DECconnect 141
NORDX/CDT Integrated Building Distribution System 142
3 Choosing the Correct Cabling 143
Topologies 144
Star Topology 145
Bus Topology 146
Ring Topology 147
UTP, Optical Fiber, and Future-Proofing 148
Network Architectures 150
Ethernet 150
10Mbps Ethernet Systems 153
100Mbps Ethernet Systems 159
Gigabit Ethernet (1000Mbps) 162
Token Ring 165
Token Ring and Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) 167
Token Ring and Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) 167
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) 168
Cabling and FDDI 170
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) 170
Cabling and ATM 172
100VG-AnyLAN 172
Cable and 100VG-AnyLAN 174
Cascading 175
Network-Connectivity Devices 177
Repeaters 177
Hubs 178
Bridges 181
Switches 185
Routers 185
4 Cable System and Infrastructure Constraints 189
Where Do Codes Come From? 190
The United States Federal Communications Commission 190
The National Fire Protection Association 192
Underwriters Laboratories 194
Codes and the Law 196
Contents
The National Electrical Code 198
NEC Chapter 1 General Requirements 199
Article 100—Definitions 199
Article 110-3 (b)—Installation and Use 199
Article 110-26—Spaces about Electrical Equipment 199
NEC Chapter 2 Wiring and Protection 199
Article 225-14 (d)—Conductors on Poles 200
Article 250—Grounding 200
Article 250-2 (c)—Bonding of Electrically Conductive
Materials and Other Equipment 200
Article 250-32—Two or More Buildings or Structures
Supplied from a Common Service 201
Article 250-50—Grounding-Electrode System 201
Article 250-52—Made and Other Electrodes 203
Article 250-60—Use of Air Terminals 203
Article 250-70—Methods of Grounding Conductor
Connection to Electrodes 204
Article 250-92 (b)—Bonding to Other Services 204
Article 250-104—Bonding of Piping Systems and
Exposed Structural Steel 204
Article 250-119—Identification of Equipment-Grounding
Conductors 205
NEC Chapter 3 Wiring Methods and Materials 205
Article 300-11—Securing and Supporting 205
Article 300-21—Spread of Fire or Products of Combustion 206
Article 300-22—Wiring in Ducts, Plenums, and Other
Air-Handling Spaces 206
NEC Chapter 5 Special Occupancy 207
Articles 500 through 504 207
NEC Chapter 7 Special Conditions 208
Article 725-1—Scope 208
Article 760—Fire-Alarm Systems 208
Article 770—Optical-Fiber Cables and Raceways 208
Article 770-6—Raceways for Optical-Fiber Cables 209
Article 770-8—Mechanical Execution of Work 209
Article 770-50—Listings, Marking, and Installation
of Optical-Fiber Cables 210
Article 770-52—Optical-Fiber Raceways 211
Article 770-53—Cable Substitutions 211
Contents xv
xvi
NEC Chapter 8 Communications Systems 211
Article 800-1—Scope 212
Article 800-6—Mechanical Execution of Work 212
Article 800-7—Hazardous Locations 212
Article 800-10—Overhead Wires and Cables 212
Article 800-11—Underground Circuits Entering Buildings 212
Article 800-30—Circuits Requiring Primary Protectors 213
Article 800-32—Secondary Protector Requirements 214
Article 800-33—Cable Grounding 215
Article 800-40—Primary-Protector Grounding 215
Article 800-50—Listings, Markings, and Installation of
Communications Wires and Cables 216
Article 800-50—Listing Requirements for
Communications Wires and Cables and Communications
Raceways 217
Article 800-52—Installation of Communications Wires,
Cables, and Equipment 218
Knowing and Following the Codes 219
5 Cabling System Components 221
The Cable 222
Horizontal and Backbone Cables 222
Horizontal Cables 223
Backbone Cables 224
Modular Patch Cables 224
Pick the Right Cable for the Job 225
Wall Plates and Connectors 226
Cabling Pathways 227
Conduit 228
Cable Trays 228
Raceways 230
Fiber-Protection Systems 232
Wiring Closets 233
TIA/EIA Recommendations for Wiring Closets 234
Cabling Racks and Enclosures 236
Wall-Mounted Brackets 237
Skeletal Frames (19-Inch Racks) 238
Contents
Full Equipment Cabinets 240
Cable-Management Accessories 241
Electrical Grounding 242
Cross-Connect Devices 242
The 66 Punch-Down Blocks 243
The 110 and S-210 Punch-Down Blocks 244
Modular Patch Panels 245
Consolidation Points 246
Fiber-Optic Connector Panels 247
Administration Standards 248
6 Tools of the Trade 251
Building a Cabling Tool Kit 253
Common Cabling Tools 254
Wire Strippers 254
Coaxial Wire Strippers 255
Fiber-Optic Cable Strippers 257
Wire Cutters 258
Cable Crimpers 259
Twisted-Pair Crimpers 260
Coaxial-Cable Crimpers 262
Punch-Down Tools 263
Fish Tapes 265
Voltage Meter 268
Cable Testing 268
A Cable-Toning Tool 269
Twisted-Pair Continuity Tester 270
Coaxial Tester 271
Optical-Fiber Testers 272
Cabling Supplies and Tools 273
Cable-Pulling Tools 274
Wire-Pulling Lubricant 280
Cable-Marking Supplies 282
Wall-Plate Marking Supplies 283
Tools That a Smart Data-Cable Technician Carries 284
A Preassembled Kit Could Be It 285
PART II Network Media and Connectors
7 Copper Cable Media 289
Types of Copper Cabling 290
Major Cable Types Found Today 291
Category 1 UTP Cable 294
Category 2 UTP Cable 295
Category 3 UTP Cable 295
Category 4 UTP Cable 295
Category 5/5e UTP Cable 296
Category 6 UTP Cable 296
Category 7 UTP Cable 296
Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable (IBM Type 1A) 296
Backbone UTP Cable 298
Coaxial Cable 300
Hybrid or Composite Cable 301
Picking the Right Patch Cables 302
Why Pick Copper Cabling? 303
Best Practices for Copper Installation 304
Following Standards 304
Cable Distances 305
Wiring Patterns 307
Planning 308
Cable Management 309
Installing Copper Cable 309
Pulling Cable 310
Separating Voice and Data Patch Panels 312
Sheath Sharing 313
Avoiding Electromagnetic Interference 314
Copper Cable for Data Applications 315
110-Blocks 315
Sample Data Installations 319
Copper Cable for Voice Applications 322
66-Blocks 322
25-Pair Wire Assignments 325
Sample Voice Installations 326
Testing 330
Tone Generators and Amplifier Probes 330
Contents
Continuity Testing 331
Wire-Map Testers 331
Cable Certification 332
Common Problems with Copper Cabling 333
Length Problems 333
Wire-Map Problems 333
NEXT and FEXT (Crosstalk) Problems 333
Attenuation Problems 334
8 Wall Plates 335
Wall-Plate Design and Installation Issues 336
Manufacturer System 337
Wall-Plate Location 337
Vertical Position 338
Horizontal Position 339
Wall-Plate Mounting System 340
Outlet Boxes 340
Cut-In Mounting 342
Surface-Mount Outlet Boxes 344
Fixed-Design or Modular Plate 345
Fixed-Design Wall Plates 346
Number of Sockets 347
Types of Sockets 347
Labeling 348
Modular Wall Plates 349
Number of Sockets 349
Wall-Plate Jack Considerations 350
Wall-Plate System Type 351
Cable Connection 351
Jack Orientation 352
Wiring Pattern 352
Labeling 354
Biscuit Jacks 354
Types of Biscuit Jacks 355
Advantages of Biscuit Jacks 355
Disadvantages of Biscuit Jacks 356
9 Connectors 357
Twisted-Pair Cable Connectors 358
Patch-Panel Terminations 358
Solid- versus Stranded-Conductor Cables 359
Modular Jacks and Plugs 360
Wiring Schemes 364
Pins Used by Specific Applications 373
Using a Single Horizontal Cable Run for Two
10Base-T Connections 374
Crossover Cables 375
Shielded Twisted-Pair Connectors 376
Coaxial Cable Connectors 377
F-Series Coaxial Connectors 377
N-Series Coaxial Connectors 378
The BNC Connector 378
Fiber-Optic Cable Connectors 380
Fiber-Optic Connector Types 380
The SFF Issue 382
Installing Fiber-Optic Connectors 384
10 Fiber-Optic Media 387
Introduction to Fiber-Optic Transmission 388
Advantages of Fiber-Optic Cabling 390
Immunity to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) 390
Higher Possible Data Rates 391
Longer Maximum Distances 391
Better Security 391
Disadvantages of Fiber-Optic Cabling 392
Higher Cost 392
Difficult to Install 392
Types of Fiber-Optic Cables 393
Composition of a Fiber-Optic Cable 394
Optical Fiber 394
Buffer 398
Strength Members 400
Shield Materials 401
Cable Jacket 401
Additional Designations of Fiber-Optic Cables 401
Core/Cladding Size 402
Contents
Number of Optical Fibers 405
LAN/WAN Application 406
Fiber Installation Issues 407
Components of a Typical Installation 408
Fiber-Optic Enclosures 408
Fiber-Optic Connectors 410
Fiber-Optic Performance Factors 415
Attenuation 416
Acceptance Angle 417
Numerical Aperture (NA) 417
Modal Dispersion 418
Chromatic Dispersion 419
11 Unbounded (Wireless) Media 421
Infrared Transmissions 422
How Infrared Transmissions Work 423
Point to Point 424
Broadcast 425
Advantages of Infrared 427
Disadvantages of Infrared 428
Examples of Infrared Transmissions 429
IrDA Ports 429
Infrared-Laser Devices 430
Radio-Frequency (RF) Systems 431
How RF Works 431
Low Power, Single Frequency 433
High Power, Single Frequency 434
Spread Spectrum 435
Advantages of RF 437
Disadvantages of RF 437
Examples of RF 438
Microwave Communications 440
How Microwave Communication Works 440
Terrestrial 441
Satellite 443
Advantages of Microwave Communications 444
Disadvantages of Microwave Communications 445
Examples of Microwave Communications 446
Contents xxi
xxii
PART III Cabling Design and Installation
12 Cabling-System Design and Installation 449
Elements of a Successful Cabling Installation 450
Proper Design 450
Desired Standards and Performance Characteristics 451
Flexibility 451
Longevity 452
Ease of Administration 452
Economy 452
Quality Materials 453
Good Workmanship 453
Cabling Topologies 454
Bus Topology 454
The Star Topology 455
The Ring Topology 455
The Mesh Topology 456
Backbones and Segments 457
Understanding the Backbone 457
Understanding Segments 458
Selecting the Right Topology 458
Cabling-Plant Uses 458
Telephone 459
Television 460
Fire-Detection and Security Cabling 461
Choice of Media 461
Telecommunications Closets 462
LAN Wiring 462
Telephone Wiring 464
Power Requirements 466
HVAC Considerations 467
Cabling Management 467
Physical Protection 468
Conduit 468
Cable Trays 469
Standoffs 469
D-Rings 470
Contents
Electrical Protection (Spike Protection) 471
Standby Power Supply (SPS) 471
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) 472
Fire Protection 472
Data and Cabling Security 473
EM (Electromagnetic) Transmission Regulation 474
Tapping Prevention 474
Cabling Installation Procedures 475
Design the Cabling System 475
Schedule the Installation 475
Install the Cabling 476
Cabling Tools 476
Pulling Cable 480
Cabling System Documentation 482
Cable Termination 482
Test the Installation 486
13 Cable-Connector Installation 489
Twisted-Pair Cable-Connector Installation 490
Types of Connectors 490
Conductor Arrangement 492
Connector Crimping Procedures 494
Prerequisites 494
Installing the Connector 495
Testing 500
Coaxial Cable-Connector Installation 500
Types of Connectors 501
Connector Crimping Procedures 502
Prerequisites 502
Installing the Connector 502
Testing 507
Fiber-Optic Cable-Connector Installation 507
Connector Types 508
Connectorizing Methods 508
Epoxy Connectors 509
Epoxyless Connectors 509
Connector Installation Procedures 509
Prerequisites 509
Installing the Connector 510
Contents xxiii
xxiv
14 Cable-System Testing and Troubleshooting 527
Installation Testing 528
Copper-Cable Tests 529
Wire Mapping 529
Cable Length 532
Performance Testing 535
Fiber-Optic Tests 539
Optical Power 540
Loss (Attenuation) 540
Cable-Plant Certification 542
Creating a Testing Regimen 543
Copper-Cable Certification 544
Fiber-Optic Certification 549
Third-Party Certification 550
Cable-Testing Tools 550
Wire-Map Testers 551
Continuity Testers 552
Tone Generators 552
Time Domain Reflectometers (TDR) 553
Fault Detection 554
Blind Spots 554
Integrated TDRs 555
Fiber-Optic Power Meters 556
Fiber-Optic Test Sources 557
Optical Loss Test Sets and Test Kits 557
Optical Time Domain Reflectometers (OTDRs) 558
Fiber-Optic Inspection Microscopes 559
Visual Fault Locators 560
Multifunction Cable Scanners 560
Troubleshooting Cabling Problems 562
Establishing a Baseline 562
Locating the Problem 563
Resolving Specific Problems 564
Wire-Map Faults 564
Excessive Length 565
Opens and Shorts 566
Excessive Attenuation 566
Excessive NEXT 567
Excessive Noise 568
Contents
15 Creating a Request for Proposal (RFP) 569
What Is a Request for Proposal? 570
What Do We Want in Life? 571
Developing a Request for Proposal 572
The Needs Analysis 572
Getting Input from Key Players 573
Designing the Project for the RFP 577
Components of a Cabling Infrastructure 577
How Much Is Enough? 581
Rules for Designing Your Infrastructure 583
Writing the RFP 586
Including the Right Content in the RFP 587
What Makes a Good RFP? 588
Distributing the RFP and Managing the Vendor-Selection Process 589
Distributing RFPs to Prospective Vendors 589
Vendor Selection 590
Project Administration 591
Cutover 591
Technology Network Infrastructure Request for Proposal
(A Sample RFP) 592
General 593
Contractor’s Requirements 593
Purpose of This RFP 593
Work Included 594
Intent 595
Cable Plant 595
Horizontal Cable 595
Data Backbone Cabling 597
Fire-Code Compliance 597
Wiring Pathways 597
Wiring Identification 598
Telecommunications Closets 598
MDF/IDF Cable Management 599
As-Built Diagrams 599
Network Hardware Specifications 600
Bidding Process 600
Bid Submittals 600
Miscellaneous 600
16 Cabling @ Work: Experience from the Field 601
Hints and Guidelines 602
Know What You Are Doing 602
Plan the Installation 604
Have the Right Equipment 605
Test and Document 605
Train Your Crew 606
Work Safely 606
Make It Pretty 607
Look Good Yourself 608
Plan for Contingencies 608
Match Your Work to the Job 610
Waste Not, Want Not 611
Case Studies 612
A Small Job 612
A Large Job 615
A Peculiar Job 617
An Inside Job 618
Appendices
A Dictionary of Cabling and Telecommunications
Terms and Concepts 623
B Cabling Resources 711
Informational Internet Resources 712
wiring.com 712
Engineering Notebook for Communication Cables 712
comp.dcom.cabling 712
The Cabling News Group FAQ 713
Whatis 713
TIA Online 713
TechFest 713
TechEncyclopedia 714
Global Technologies, Inc. 714
Cabletesting.Com 714
National Electrical Code Internet Connection 714
Charles Spurgeon’s Ethernet Web Site 714
Federal Standard 1037C: Glossary of Telecommunications Terms 715
Contents
Twisted-Pair Ethernet 715
Networking-Hardware Course Notes 715
Directory for WAN, LAN, and ATM Protocols 715
Webopedia: Online Computer Dictionary for Internet Terms
and Technical Support 715
Books, Publications, and Videos 716
Cabling Business Magazine 716
Cabling Installation and Maintenance 716
Cabling Installation and Maintenance Tips and Videos 716
Newton’s Telecom Dictionary by Harry Newton 716
Premises Network Online 717
Building Your Own High-Tech Small Office by Robert Richardson 717
BICSI’s Telecommunications Distribution Methods and Cabling
Installation Manuals 717
Understanding the National Electrical Code (3rd Edition)
by Mike Holt and Charles Michael Holt 717
ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A Commercial Building Telecommunication
Cabling Standard 717
Vendors and Manufacturers 718
The Siemon Company 718
MilesTek, Inc. 718
IDEAL DataComm 718
Ortronics 719
Superior Essex 719
Jensen Tools 719
Labor Saving Devices, Inc. 719
Avaya (formerly Lucent) SYSTIMAX SCS 719
Erico 719
Berk-Tek 720
Microtest 720
Fluke 720
Amp 720
Panduit 720
Anixter 720
C Registered Communications and Distribution
Designer (RCDD) Certification 729
Apply and Be Accepted as a Candidate for the Designation of RCDD 723
Successfully Pass the Stringent RCDD Exam 724
Maintain Your Accreditation through Continuing Membership
and Education 727
Check Out BICSI and the RCDD Program for Yourself 728
D Home Cabling: Wiring Your Home for Now
and the Future 729
Home-Cabling Facts and Trends 731
Structured Residential Cabling 732
Picking Cabling Equipment for Home Cabling 735
Thinking Forward 737
E Overview of IEEE 1394 and USB Networking 739
IEEE 1394 741
USB 744
References 746
F The Electronics Technicians Association,
International (ETA) Data-Cabling Installer
Certification (DCIC) Program 747
Data-Cabling Installer Certification Program (DCIC) 748
DCIC Categories and Competencies 748
1. 0: Basic Electricity 748
2.0: Data-Communications Basics 748
3.0: Definitions, Symbols, and Abbreviations 749
4.0: Cable Construction 749
5.0: Cable Performance Characteristics 749
6.0: Cabling Standards 749
7.0: Basic Network Topologies 749
8.0: Basic Network Architectures 750
9.0: National Electric Code 750
10.0: Cabling-System Components 750
11.0: DCIC Installation Tools 750
12.0: Connectors and Outlets 751
13.0: Cabling-System Design 751
14.0: Cabling Installation 751
15.0: Connector Installation 751
16.0: Cabling Testing and Certification 751
17.0: Cabling Troubleshooting 751
18.0: Documentation 751

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