ASME B31.3-2012 Process Piping



Process Piping - ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31.


The next edition of this Code is scheduled for publication in 2014. This Code will become effective 6 months after the Date of Issuance.

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CONTENTS:


Foreword.............................................................................. xiii

Committee Personnel.................................................................. xiv

Introduction ........................................................................... xviii

Summary of Changes.................................................................. xx

Chapter I Scope and Definitions..................................................... 1

300 General Statements ...................................................... 1

Chapter II Design................................................................... 10

Part 1 Conditions and Criteria ................................................... 10

301 Design Conditions ....................................................... 10

302 Design Criteria .......................................................... 12

Part 2 Pressure Design of Piping Components .................................... 18

303 General.................................................................. 18

304 Pressure Design of Components.......................................... 20

Part 3 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Components ......................... 30

305 Pipe..................................................................... 30

306 Fittings, Bends, Miters, Laps, and Branch Connections .................... 30

307 Valves and Specialty Components ........................................ 32

308 Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, and Gaskets ............................. 32

309 Bolting .................................................................. 33

Part 4 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Joints ............................... 33

310 General.................................................................. 33

311 Welded Joints............................................................ 33

312 Flanged Joints ........................................................... 34

313 Expanded Joints ......................................................... 34

314 Threaded Joints.......................................................... 34

315 Tubing Joints ............................................................ 35

316 Caulked Joints ........................................................... 35

317 Soldered and Brazed Joints............................................... 35

318 Special Joints ............................................................ 35

Part 5 Flexibility and Support.................................................... 36

319 Piping Flexibility ........................................................ 36

320 Analysis of Sustained Loads ............................................. 41

321 Piping Support .......................................................... 42

Part 6 Systems ................................................................. 44

322 Specific Piping Systems .................................................. 44

Chapter III Materials................................................................. 46

323 General Requirements.................................................... 46

325 Materials — Miscellaneous............................................... 55

Chapter IV Standards for Piping Components.......................................... 56

326 Dimensions and Ratings of Components.................................. 56

Chapter V Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection........................................ 59

327 General.................................................................. 59

328 Welding and Brazing .................................................... 59

330 Preheating............................................................... 65

331 Heat Treatment .......................................................... 67

332 Bending and Forming.................................................... 70

iii

333 Brazing and Soldering ................................................... 71

335 Assembly and Erection................................................... 71

Chapter VI Inspection, Examination, and Testing....................................... 73

340 Inspection ............................................................... 73

341 Examination ............................................................. 73

342 Examination Personnel................................................... 80

343 Examination Procedures.................................................. 80

344 Types of Examination .................................................... 80

345 Testing .................................................................. 82

346 Records ................................................................. 85

Chapter VII Nonmetallic Piping and Piping Lined With Nonmetals........................ 86

A300 General Statements...................................................... 86

Part 1 Conditions and Criteria ................................................... 86

A301 Design Conditions....................................................... 86

A302 Design Criteria.......................................................... 86

Part 2 Pressure Design of Piping Components .................................... 88

A303 General.................................................................. 88

A304 Pressure Design of Piping Components................................... 88

Part 3 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Components ......................... 89

A305 Pipe..................................................................... 89

A306 Fittings, Bends, Miters, Laps, and Branch Connections.................... 89

A307 Valves and Specialty Components........................................ 90

A308 Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, and Gaskets............................. 90

A309 Bolting.................................................................. 90

Part 4 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Joints ............................... 90

A310 General.................................................................. 90

A311 Bonded Joints in Plastics................................................. 90

A312 Flanged Joints........................................................... 91

A313 Expanded Joints......................................................... 91

A314 Threaded Joints.......................................................... 91

A315 Tubing Joints............................................................ 91

A316 Caulked Joints........................................................... 91

A318 Special Joints............................................................ 91

Part 5 Flexibility and Support.................................................... 92

A319 Flexibility of Nonmetallic Piping......................................... 92

A321 Piping Support.......................................................... 93

Part 6 Systems ................................................................. 93

A322 Specific Piping Systems.................................................. 93

Part 7 Materials ................................................................ 94

A323 General Requirements.................................................... 94

A325 Materials — Miscellaneous............................................... 96

Part 8 Standards for Piping Components ......................................... 96

A326 Dimensions and Ratings of Components.................................. 96

Part 9 Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection ....................................... 99

A327 General.................................................................. 99

A328 Bonding of Plastics...................................................... 99

A329 Fabrication of Piping Lined With Nonmetals.............................. 101

A332 Bending and Forming.................................................... 103

A334 Joining Nonplastic Piping................................................ 103

A335 Assembly and Erection................................................... 103

Part 10 Inspection, Examination, and Testing ...................................... 104

A340 Inspection ............................................................... 104

A341 Examination............................................................. 104

A342 Examination Personnel................................................... 104

iv

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A343 Examination Procedures.................................................. 104

A344 Types of Examination.................................................... 105

A345 Testing.................................................................. 105

A346 Records................................................................. 106

Chapter VIII Piping for Category M Fluid Service........................................ 107

M300 General Statements...................................................... 107

Part 1 Conditions and Criteria ................................................... 107

M301 Design Conditions....................................................... 107

M302 Design Criteria.......................................................... 107

Part 2 Pressure Design of Metallic Piping Components ............................ 108

M303 General.................................................................. 108

M304 Pressure Design of Metallic Components................................. 108

Part 3 Fluid Service Requirements for Metallic Piping Components................. 108

M305 Pipe..................................................................... 108

M306 Metallic Fittings, Bends, Miters, Laps, and Branch Connections............ 108

M307 Metallic Valves and Specialty Components............................... 108

M308 Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, and Gaskets............................. 109

M309 Bolting.................................................................. 109

Part 4 Fluid Service Requirements for Metallic Piping Joints ....................... 109

M310 Metallic Piping, General................................................. 109

M311 Welded Joints in Metallic Piping......................................... 109

M312 Flanged Joints in Metallic Piping......................................... 109

M313 Expanded Joints in Metallic Piping....................................... 109

M314 Threaded Joints in Metallic Piping........................................ 109

M315 Tubing Joints in Metallic Piping.......................................... 109

M316 Caulked Joints........................................................... 109

M317 Soldered and Brazed Joints............................................... 109

M318 Special Joints in Metallic Piping.......................................... 109

Part 5 Flexibility and Support of Metallic Piping .................................. 110

M319 Flexibility of Metallic Piping............................................. 110

M321 Piping Support.......................................................... 110

Part 6 Systems ................................................................. 110

M322 Specific Piping Systems.................................................. 110

Part 7 Metallic Materials ........................................................ 110

M323 General Requirements.................................................... 110

M325 Materials — Miscellaneous............................................... 110

Part 8 Standards for Piping Components ......................................... 110

M326 Dimensions and Ratings of Components.................................. 110

Part 9 Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection of Metallic Piping...................... 111

M327 General.................................................................. 111

M328 Welding of Metals....................................................... 111

M330 Preheating of Metals..................................................... 111

M331 Heat Treatment of Metals................................................ 111

M332 Bending and Forming of Metals.......................................... 111

M335 Assembly and Erection of Metallic Piping................................ 111

Part 10 Inspection, Examination, Testing, and Records of Metallic Piping............ 111

M340 Inspection............................................................... 111

M341 Examination............................................................. 111

M342 Examination Personnel................................................... 112

M343 Examination Procedures.................................................. 112

M344 Types of Examination.................................................... 112

M345 Testing.................................................................. 112

M346 Records................................................................. 112

v

Parts 11 Through 20, Corresponding to Chapter VII ................................... 112

MA300 General Statements...................................................... 112

Part 11 Conditions and Criteria ................................................... 112

MA301 Design Conditions....................................................... 112

MA302 Design Criteria.......................................................... 112

Part 12 Pressure Design of Nonmetallic Piping Components ........................ 112

MA303 General.................................................................. 112

MA304 Pressure Design of Nonmetallic Components............................. 112

Part 13 Fluid Service Requirements for Nonmetallic Piping Components ............. 112

MA305 Pipe..................................................................... 112

MA306 Nonmetallic Fittings, Bends, Miters, Laps, and Branch Connections....... 112

MA307 Valves and Specialty Components........................................ 112

MA308 Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, and Gaskets............................. 113

MA309 Bolting.................................................................. 113

Part 14 Fluid Service Requirements for Nonmetallic Piping Joints.................... 113

MA310 General.................................................................. 113

MA311 Bonded Joints............................................................ 113

MA312 Flanged Joints........................................................... 113

MA313 Expanded Joints......................................................... 113

MA314 Threaded Joints.......................................................... 113

MA315 Tubing Joints in Nonmetallic Piping...................................... 113

MA316 Caulked Joints........................................................... 113

MA318 Special Joints............................................................ 113

Part 15 Flexibility and Support of Nonmetallic Piping .............................. 113

MA319 Piping Flexibility........................................................ 113

MA321 Piping Support.......................................................... 113

Part 16 Nonmetallic and Nonmetallic Lined Systems................................ 113

MA322 Specific Piping Systems.................................................. 113

Part 17 Nonmetallic Materials..................................................... 113

MA323 General Requirements.................................................... 113

Part 18 Standards for Nonmetallic and Nonmetallic Lined Piping Components........ 113

MA326 Dimensions and Ratings of Components.................................. 113

Part 19 Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection of Nonmetallic and Nonmetallic Lined

Piping................................................................. 113

MA327 General.................................................................. 113

MA328 Bonding of Plastics...................................................... 114

MA329 Fabrication of Piping Lined With Nonmetals.............................. 114

MA332 Bending and Forming.................................................... 114

MA334 Joining Nonplastic Piping................................................ 114

MA335 Assembly and Erection................................................... 114

Part 20 Inspection, Examination, Testing, and Records of Nonmetallic and

Nonmetallic Lined Piping ............................................... 114

MA340 Inspection............................................................... 114

MA341 Examination............................................................. 114

MA342 Examination Personnel................................................... 114

MA343 Examination Procedures.................................................. 114

MA344 Types of Examination .................................................... 114

MA345 Testing.................................................................. 114

MA346 Records................................................................. 114

Chapter IX High Pressure Piping...................................................... 115

K300 General Statements...................................................... 115

Part 1 Conditions and Criteria ................................................... 115

K301 Design Conditions....................................................... 115

K302 Design Criteria.......................................................... 116

vi

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Part 2 Pressure Design of Piping Components .................................... 118

K303 General.................................................................. 118

K304 Pressure Design of High Pressure Components........................... 118

Part 3 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Components ......................... 122

K305 Pipe..................................................................... 122

K306 Fittings, Bends, and Branch Connections ................................. 122

K307 Valves and Specialty Components........................................ 122

K308 Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, and Gaskets............................. 122

K309 Bolting.................................................................. 123

Part 4 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Joints ............................... 123

K310 General.................................................................. 123

K311 Welded Joints............................................................ 123

K312 Flanged Joints........................................................... 123

K313 Expanded Joints......................................................... 123

K314 Threaded Joints.......................................................... 123

K315 Tubing Joints............................................................ 124

K316 Caulked Joints........................................................... 124

K317 Soldered and Brazed Joints............................................... 124

K318 Special Joints............................................................ 124

Part 5 Flexibility and Support.................................................... 124

K319 Flexibility................................................................ 124

K321 Piping Support.......................................................... 124

Part 6 Systems ................................................................. 125

K322 Specific Piping Systems.................................................. 125

Part 7 Materials ................................................................ 125

K323 General Requirements.................................................... 125

K325 Miscellaneous Materials.................................................. 130

Part 8 Standards for Piping Components ......................................... 130

K326 Requirements for Components........................................... 130

Part 9 Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection ....................................... 130

K327 General.................................................................. 130

K328 Welding................................................................. 130

K330 Preheating............................................................... 133

K331 Heat Treatment.......................................................... 134

K332 Bending and Forming.................................................... 134

K333 Brazing and Soldering................................................... 135

K335 Assembly and Erection................................................... 135

Part 10 Inspection, Examination, and Testing ...................................... 135

K340 Inspection............................................................... 135

K341 Examination............................................................. 135

K342 Examination Personnel................................................... 137

K343 Examination Procedures.................................................. 137

K344 Types of Examination.................................................... 137

K345 Leak Testing............................................................. 138

K346 Records ................................................................. 139

Chapter X High Purity Piping......................................................... 140

U300 General Statements...................................................... 140

Part 1 Conditions and Criteria ................................................... 140

Part 2 Pressure Design of Piping Components .................................... 140

Part 3 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Components ......................... 140

U308 Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, and Gaskets............................. 140

Part4 Fluid Service Requirements for Piping Joints ............................... 140

U311 Welded Joints............................................................ 140

U314 Threaded Joints.......................................................... 141

U315 Tubing Joints............................................................ 141

vii

Part 5 Flexibility and Support.................................................... 141

Part 6 Systems ................................................................. 141

Part 7 Metallic Materials ........................................................ 141

Part 8 Standards for Piping Components ......................................... 141

Part 9 Fabrication, Assembly, and Erection ....................................... 141

U327 General.................................................................. 141

U328 Welding................................................................. 142

U330 Preheating............................................................... 142

U331 Heat Treatment.......................................................... 142

U332 Bending and Forming.................................................... 142

U333 Brazing and Soldering................................................... 142

U335 Assembly and Erection................................................... 142

Part 10 Inspection, Examination, and Testing ...................................... 142

U340 Inspection............................................................... 142

U341 Examination............................................................. 142

U342 Examination Personnel................................................... 142

U343 Examination Procedures.................................................. 142

U344 Types of Examination.................................................... 144

U345 Testing.................................................................. 144

U346 Records................................................................. 144

Part 11 High Purity Piping in Category M Fluid Service ............................. 144

UM300 General Statements...................................................... 144

UM307 Metallic Valves and Specialty Components ............................... 145

UM322 Specific Piping Systems.................................................. 145

UM328 Welding of Materials..................................................... 145

UM335 Assembly and Erection of Metallic Piping................................ 145

UM341 Examination............................................................. 145

UM345 Testing.................................................................. 145

Figures

300.1.1 Diagram Illustrating Application of B31.3 Piping at Equipment............ 3

302.3.5 Stress Range Factor,f .................................................... 17

304.2.1 Nomenclature for Pipe Bends ............................................ 21

304.2.3 Nomenclature for Miter Bends ........................................... 21

304.3.3 Branch Connection Nomenclature ........................................ 23

304.3.4 Extruded Outlet Header Nomenclature ................................... 25

304.5.3 Blanks................................................................... 29

319.4.4A Moments in Bends ....................................................... 40

319.4.4B Moments in Branch Connections ......................................... 40

323.2.2A Minimum Temperatures Without Impact Testing for Carbon Steel

Materials.............................................................. 49

323.2.2B Reduction in Minimum Design Metal Temperature Without

Impact Testing ........................................................ 51

328.3.2 Typical Backing Rings and Consumable Inserts ........................... 61

328.4.2 Typical Butt Weld End Preparation ....................................... 61

328.4.3 Trimming and Permitted Misalignment ................................... 61

328.4.4 Preparation for Branch Connections ...................................... 62

328.5.2A Fillet Weld Size .......................................................... 63

328.5.2B Typical Details for Double-Welded Slip-On and Socket Welding Flange

Attachment Welds..................................................... 63

328.5.2C Minimum Welding Dimensions for Socket Welding Components Other

Than Flanges.......................................................... 63

328.5.4A Typical Welded Branch Connections ...................................... 64

328.5.4B Typical Welded Branch Connections ...................................... 64

328.5.4C TypicalWelded Branch Connections...................................... 64

328.5.4D Acceptable Details for Branch Attachment Welds ......................... 64

viii

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328.5.4E Acceptable Details for Branch Attachment Suitable for 100%

Radiography .......................................................... 64

328.5.5 Typical Fabricated Laps .................................................. 65

335.3.3 Typical Threaded Joints Using Straight Threads........................... 72

341.3.2 Typical Weld Imperfections .............................................. 78

A328.5 Typical Plastic Piping Joints.............................................. 102

K323.3.3 Example of an Acceptable Impact Test Specimen.......................... 128

K328.4.3 Pipe Bored for Alignment: Trimming and Permitted Misalignment ........ 133

K328.5.4 Some Acceptable Welded Branch Connections Suitable for 100%

Radiography .......................................................... 133

U304.5.3 Blanks................................................................... 141

U335.7.1 Face Seal Joints.......................................................... 143

U335.8 Hygienic Clamp......................................................... 143

Tables

300.4 Status of Appendices in B31.3 ............................................ 9

302.3.3C Increased Casting Quality Factors,Ec ..................................... 15

302.3.3D Acceptance Levels for Castings........................................... 15

302.3.4 Longitudinal Weld Joint Quality Factor,Ej ................................ 16

302.3.5 Weld Joint Strength Reduction Factor,W.................................. 19

304.1.1 Values of CoefficientYfor t <D⁄6 ........................................ 20

304.4.1 BPV Code References for Closures........................................ 27

308.2.1 Permissible Sizes/Rating Classes for Slip-On Flanges Used as Lapped

Flanges................................................................ 32

314.2.1 Minimum Thickness of External Threaded Components................... 35

323.2.2 Requirements for Low Temperature Toughness Tests for Metals ........... 47

323.2.2A Tabular Values for Minimum Temperatures Without Impact Testing for

Carbon Steel Materials................................................. 50

323.3.1 Impact Testing Requirements for Metals .................................. 52

323.3.4 Charpy Impact Test Temperature Reduction .............................. 53

323.3.5 Minimum Required Charpy V-Notch Impact Values....................... 54

326.1 Component Standards ................................................... 57

330.1.1 Preheat Temperatures .................................................... 66

331.1.1 Requirements for Heat Treatment......................................... 68

341.3.2 Acceptance Criteria for Welds and Examination Methods for Evaluating

Weld Imperfections.................................................... 75

A323.2.2 Requirements for Low Temperature Toughness Tests for Nonmetals....... 95

A323.4.2C Recommended Temperature Limits for Reinforced Thermosetting Resin

Pipe................................................................... 95

A323.4.3 Recommended Temperature Limits for Thermoplastics Used as

Linings................................................................ 96

A326.1 Component Standards................................................... 97

A341.3.2 Acceptance Criteria for Bonds............................................ 105

K302.3.3D Acceptable Severity Levels for Steel Castings............................. 118

K305.1.2 Required Ultrasonic or Eddy Current Examination of Pipe and Tubing for

Longitudinal Defects .................................................. 122

K323.3.1 Impact Testing Requirements............................................. 127

K323.3.5 Minimum Required Charpy V-Notch Impact Values....................... 129

K326.1 Component Standards................................................... 131

K341.3.2 Acceptance Criteria for Welds............................................ 136

Appendices

A Allowable Stresses and Quality Factors for Metallic Piping and Bolting

Materials.............................................................. 147

Specification Index for Appendix A ...................................... 148

Notes for Tables A-1, A-1A, A-1B, A-1M, A-2, and A-2M.................. 151

Table A-1 Basic Allowable Stresses in Tension for Metals ................... 155

Iron

Castings............................................................... 155

ix

Carbon Steel

Pipes and Tubes....................................................... 156

Pipes (Structural Grade) ............................................... 160

Plates, Bars, Shapes, and Sheets........................................ 160

Plates, Bars, Shapes, and Sheets (Structural) ............................ 162

Forgings and Fittings .................................................. 162

Castings............................................................... 162

Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel

Pipes.................................................................. 164

Plates ................................................................. 166

Forgings and Fittings .................................................. 168

Castings............................................................... 170

Stainless Steel

Pipes and Tubes....................................................... 172

Plates and Sheets...................................................... 176

Forgings and Fittings .................................................. 178

Bar .................................................................... 182

Castings............................................................... 182

Copper and Copper Alloy

Pipes and Tubes....................................................... 184

Plates and Sheets...................................................... 184

Forgings............................................................... 186

Castings............................................................... 186

Rod ................................................................... 186

Nickel and Nickel Alloy

Pipes and Tubes....................................................... 188

Plates and Sheets...................................................... 190

Forgings and Fittings .................................................. 192

Rod and Bar ........................................................... 196

Castings............................................................... 196

Titanium and Titanium Alloy

Pipes and Tubes....................................................... 198

Plates and Sheets...................................................... 198

Forgings............................................................... 198

Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy

Pipes and Tubes....................................................... 198

Plates and Sheets...................................................... 198

Forgings and Bar ...................................................... 198

Aluminum Alloy

Seamless Pipes and Tubes.............................................. 200

Welded Pipes and Tubes............................................... 202

Structural Tubes ....................................................... 202

Plates and Sheets...................................................... 203

Forgings and Fittings .................................................. 204

Castings............................................................... 205

Table A-1MBasic Allowable Stresses in Tension for Metals(Metric) .......... 206

Fe ....................................................................... 206

Carbon Steel............................................................. 208

Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel........................................ 228

Stainless Steel ........................................................... 248

Copper and Copper Alloy ............................................... 276

Nickel and Nickel Alloy................................................. 282

Titanium and Titanium Alloy ............................................ 310

Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy.......................................... 312

Aluminum Alloy........................................................ 314

Table A-1ABasic Casting Quality Factors,Ec ................................ 332

x

Table A-1BBasic Quality Factors for Longitudinal Weld Joints in Pipes,

Tubes, and Fittings,Ej .................................................. 333

Carbon Steel............................................................. 333

Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel........................................ 333

Stainless Steel ........................................................... 334

Copper and Copper Alloy ............................................... 334

Nickel and Nickel Alloy................................................. 335

Titanium and Titanium Alloy ............................................ 335

Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy.......................................... 335

Aluminum Alloy........................................................ 335

Table A-2 Design Stress Values for Bolting Materials ....................... 336

Carbon Steel............................................................. 336

Alloy Steel.............................................................. 336

Stainless Steel ........................................................... 336

Copper and Copper Alloy ............................................... 342

Nickel and Nickel Alloy................................................. 342

Aluminum Alloy........................................................ 344

Table A-2M Design Stress Values for Bolting Materials (Metric).............. 346

B Stress Tables and Allowable Pressure Tables for Nonmetals................ 362

C Physical Properties of Piping Materials................................... 369

D Flexibility and Stress Intensification Factors............................... 384

E Reference Standards ..................................................... 388

F Precautionary Considerations ............................................ 394

G Safeguarding............................................................ 399

H Sample Calculations for Branch Reinforcement............................ 400

J Nomenclature ............................................................ 409

K Allowable Stresses for High Pressure Piping.............................. 422

L Aluminum Alloy Pipe Flanges ........................................... 436

M Guide to Classifying Fluid Services....................................... 439

N Application of ASME B31.3 Internationally............................... 441

P Alternative Rules for Evaluating Stress Range ............................ 442

Q Quality System Program................................................. 444

S Piping System Stress Analysis Examples.................................. 445

V Allowable Variations in Elevated Temperature Service..................... 458

X Metallic Bellows Expansion Joints ........................................ 461

Z Preparation of Technical Inquiries ........................................ 466

Index ................................................................................. 467


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