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Jun 8, 2017

EBOOK - Distillation Troubleshooting (Henry Z. Kister)


EBOOK - Distillation Troubleshooting (Henry Z. Kister) - 749 Trang.

The last half - century has seen tremendous progress in distillation technology. The introduction of high - speed computers revolutionized the design, control, and peration of distillation towers. Invention and innovation in tower internals enhanced tower capacity and efficiency beyond previously conceived limits.
Gamma scans and laser-guided pyrometers have provided troubleshooters with tools of which, not-solong-ago, they would only dream. With all these advances, one would expect the failure rate in distillation towers to be on the decline, maybe heading towards extinction as we enter the 21 st century. Our recent survey of  distillation failures (255) brought disappointing news: Distillation failures are not on the path to extinction.
Instead, the tower failure rate is on the rise and accelerating. Our survey further  showed that the rise is not because distillation is moving into new, unchartered frontiers. By far, the bulk of  the failures have been repetitions of previous ones. In some cases, the literature describes 10-20 repetitions of the same failure. And for every case that is reported, there are tens, maybe hundreds, that are not.


1. Troubleshooting Distillation Simulations 1
2.  Where Fractionation Goes Wrong  25
3.  Energy Savings and Thermal Effect s  61
4.  Tower Sizing and Material Selection Affec t  Performance  73
5.  Feed Entry Pitfalls  in Tray Towers  9 7
6.  Packed-Tower Liquid Distributors: Number 6 on the Top 10 Malfunctions  11 1
7.  Vapor Maldistribution in Trays and Packings  133
8.  Tower Base Level and Reboiler Return: Number 2 on the Top 10 Malfunctions
9.  Chimney Tray Malfunctions:  Part of  Number 7 on the Top 10 Malfunctions  163
10. Draw-Off  Malfunctions  (Non-Chimney Tray) Part of Number 7
on the Top 10 Malfunctions  179
11. Tower Assembly Mishaps: Number 5 on the Top 10 Malfunctions  193
12. Difficulties  During Start-Up, Shutdown, Commissioning, and Abnormal Operation: Number 4 on the To p 10 Malfunctions  21 5
13. Water-Induced Pressure Surges: Part of  Number 3 on the Top 10 Malfunctions
14. Explosions, Fires, and Chemical Releases: Number 10 on the Top 10 Malfunctions  233
15. Undesired Reactions in Towers  23 7
16. Foaming  24 1
17. The Tower as a Filter: Part A. Causes of  Plugging - Number 1
on the Top 1 0 Malfunctions  253
18. The Tower as a Filter: Part B. Location of  Plugging - Number 1
on the Top 1 0 Malfunctions  25 7
19. Coking: Number 1 on the To p 10 Malfunctions  271
20. Leaks  281
21. Relief  and Failure  287
22. Tray, Packing, and Tower Damage: Part of  Number 3 on the Top 10 Malfunctions  291
23. Reboilers That Did Not Work: Number 9 on the Top 10 Malfunctions  315
24. Condensers That Did Not Work  335
25. Misleading Measurements: Number 8 on the Top 10 Malfunctions  34 7
26. Control System Assembly Difficulties  357
27. Where Do Temperature and Composition Controls Go Wrong? 373
28. Misbehaved Pressure, Condenser, Reboiler, and Preheater Controls 377
29. Miscellaneous Control Problems 395

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